Several studies show altered heart rate variability (HRV) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but findings are neither universal nor specific to ASD. We apply a set of linear and nonlinear HRV measures—including phase rectified signal averaging—to segments of resting ECG data collected from school-age children with ASD, age-matched typically developing controls, and children with other psychiatric conditions characterized by altered HRV (conduct disorder, depression). We use machine learning to identify time, frequency, and geometric signal-analytical domains that are specific to ASD (receiver operating curve area = 0.89). This is the first study to differentiate children with ASD from other disorders characterized by altered HRV. Despite a small cohort and lack of external validation, results warrant larger prospective studies.