Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

12-09-2020 | Original Article

Brain of Thrones: Cognitive Effort and Perceived Performance During a Cognitive Task in Major Depressive Disorder

Auteurs: Chelsea Wood-Ross, Michael W. Best, Melissa Milanovic, Christopher R. Bowie

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 5/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Background

Cognitive impairment is a characteristic feature of depression and a robust predictor of everyday functioning. Cognitive remediation is a promising treatment for neurocognitive dysfunction in depression. However, treatment studies have shown that those with depression often do not apply their cognitive gains to everyday life. Features of depression may account for mixed outcomes, including avoidance and negative perceptions of abilities. The present investigation examined how individuals with depression engage with a novel cognitive task created to resemble exercises used in cognitive remediation.

Methods

Twenty-eight individuals with depression and 24 healthy comparison (HC) participants completed a computerized cognitive task while EEG was recorded. Participants were asked to indicate how they would like to adjust task difficulty and how many of the trials they believed they got correct.

Results

Participants with depression did not significantly differ from HC on objective performance accuracy. However, participants with depression opted to decrease their difficulty level significantly more than HC on high challenge levels. Additionally, individuals with depression had significantly greater EEG alpha power on high challenge levels than low challenge levels, suggesting increased disengagement from the task on more challenging levels.

Conclusions

Avoidance of cognitive challenges in depression has implications for understanding mechanisms related to cognitive performance and efforts to modify cognitive impairment.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Ahern, E., & Semkovska, M. (2017). Cognitive functioning in the first-episode of major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 31(1), 52.PubMedCrossRef Ahern, E., & Semkovska, M. (2017). Cognitive functioning in the first-episode of major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 31(1), 52.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRef
go back to reference Andersen, S. B., Moore, R. A., Venables, L., & Corr, P. J. (2009). Electrophysiological correlates of anxious rumination. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71(2), 156–169.PubMedCrossRef Andersen, S. B., Moore, R. A., Venables, L., & Corr, P. J. (2009). Electrophysiological correlates of anxious rumination. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71(2), 156–169.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baune, B. T., Miller, R., McAfoose, J., Johnson, M., Quirk, F., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The role of cognitive impairment in general functioning in major depression. Psychiatry Research, 176(2), 183–189.PubMedCrossRef Baune, B. T., Miller, R., McAfoose, J., Johnson, M., Quirk, F., & Mitchell, D. (2010). The role of cognitive impairment in general functioning in major depression. Psychiatry Research, 176(2), 183–189.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.
go back to reference Beck, A. T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1, 5–37. Beck, A. T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1, 5–37.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventory-II. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventory-II.
go back to reference Best, M. W., & Bowie, C. R. (2017). A review of cognitive remediation approaches for schizophrenia: From top-down to bottom-up, brain training to psychotherapy. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 17(7), 713–723.PubMedCrossRef Best, M. W., & Bowie, C. R. (2017). A review of cognitive remediation approaches for schizophrenia: From top-down to bottom-up, brain training to psychotherapy. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 17(7), 713–723.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bora, E., Harrison, B. J., Yücel, M., & Pantelis, C. (2013). Cognitive impairment in euthymic major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 43(10), 2017–2026.PubMedCrossRef Bora, E., Harrison, B. J., Yücel, M., & Pantelis, C. (2013). Cognitive impairment in euthymic major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 43(10), 2017–2026.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bortolato, B., Miskowiak, K. W., Köhler, C. A., Maes, M., Fernandes, B. S., Berk, M., et al. (2016). Cognitive remission: A novel objective for the treatment of major depression? BMC Medicine, 14(1), 9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Bortolato, B., Miskowiak, K. W., Köhler, C. A., Maes, M., Fernandes, B. S., Berk, M., et al. (2016). Cognitive remission: A novel objective for the treatment of major depression? BMC Medicine, 14(1), 9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Bowie, C. R. (2014). Cognitive remediation for major depressive disorder. In R. McIntyre & D. Cha (Eds.), Cognitive impairment in major depressive disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge Press. Bowie, C. R. (2014). Cognitive remediation for major depressive disorder. In R. McIntyre & D. Cha (Eds.), Cognitive impairment in major depressive disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.
go back to reference Bowie, C. R., Grossman, M., Gupta, M., Holshausen, K., & Best, M. W. (2016). Action-based cognitive remediation for individuals with serious mental illnesses: Effects of real-world simulations and goal setting on functional and vocational outcomes. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 40(1), 53–60.PubMedCrossRef Bowie, C. R., Grossman, M., Gupta, M., Holshausen, K., & Best, M. W. (2016). Action-based cognitive remediation for individuals with serious mental illnesses: Effects of real-world simulations and goal setting on functional and vocational outcomes. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 40(1), 53–60.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bowie, C. R., Gupta, M., & Holshausen, K. (2013a). Cognitive remediation therapy for mood disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(6), 319–325.PubMedCrossRef Bowie, C. R., Gupta, M., & Holshausen, K. (2013a). Cognitive remediation therapy for mood disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(6), 319–325.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bowie, C. R., Gupta, M., Holshausen, K., Jokic, R., Best, M., & Milev, R. (2013b). Cognitive remediation for treatment-resistant depression: Effects on cognition and functioning and the role of online homework. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(8), 680–685.PubMedCrossRef Bowie, C. R., Gupta, M., Holshausen, K., Jokic, R., Best, M., & Milev, R. (2013b). Cognitive remediation for treatment-resistant depression: Effects on cognition and functioning and the role of online homework. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(8), 680–685.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bowie, C. R., Milanovic, M., Tran, T., & Cassidy, S. (2017). Disengagement from tasks as a function of cognitive load and depressive symptom severity. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 22(1), 83–94.PubMedCrossRef Bowie, C. R., Milanovic, M., Tran, T., & Cassidy, S. (2017). Disengagement from tasks as a function of cognitive load and depressive symptom severity. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 22(1), 83–94.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Buist‐Bouwman, M. A., Ormel, J., De Graaf, R., De Jonge, P., Van Sonderen, E., Alonso, J., … Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2008). Mediators of the association between depression and role functioning. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(6), 451-458. Buist‐Bouwman, M. A., Ormel, J., De Graaf, R., De Jonge, P., Van Sonderen, E., Alonso, J., … Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2008). Mediators of the association between depression and role functioning. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(6), 451-458.
go back to reference Conradi, H. J., Ormel, J., & De Jonge, P. (2011). Presence of individual (residual) symptoms during depressive episodes and periods of remission: A 3-year prospective study. Psychological Medicine, 41(6), 1165–1174.PubMedCrossRef Conradi, H. J., Ormel, J., & De Jonge, P. (2011). Presence of individual (residual) symptoms during depressive episodes and periods of remission: A 3-year prospective study. Psychological Medicine, 41(6), 1165–1174.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dunn, B. D., Dalgleish, T., Lawrence, A. D., & Ogilvie, A. D. (2007). The accuracy of self-monitoring and its relationship to self-focused attention in dysphoria and clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 1.PubMedCrossRef Dunn, B. D., Dalgleish, T., Lawrence, A. D., & Ogilvie, A. D. (2007). The accuracy of self-monitoring and its relationship to self-focused attention in dysphoria and clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 1.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Elliott, R., Sahakian, B. J., McKay, A. P., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1996). Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: The influence of perceived failure on subsequent performance. Psychological Medicine, 26(5), 975–989.PubMedCrossRef Elliott, R., Sahakian, B. J., McKay, A. P., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1996). Neuropsychological impairments in unipolar depression: The influence of perceived failure on subsequent performance. Psychological Medicine, 26(5), 975–989.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Elliott, R., Sahakian, B. J., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1997). Abnormal response to negative feedback in unipolar depression: Evidence for a diagnosis specific impairment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 63(1), 74–82.CrossRef Elliott, R., Sahakian, B. J., Herrod, J. J., Robbins, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1997). Abnormal response to negative feedback in unipolar depression: Evidence for a diagnosis specific impairment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 63(1), 74–82.CrossRef
go back to reference Ellis, H. C., & Ashbrook, P. W. (1988). Resource allocation model of the effects of depressed mood states on memory. In K. Fiedler & L. Jorgas (Eds.), Affect cognition and social behaviour—New evidence and integrative attempts (pp. 25–43). Gottingen: Mogrefe. Ellis, H. C., & Ashbrook, P. W. (1988). Resource allocation model of the effects of depressed mood states on memory. In K. Fiedler & L. Jorgas (Eds.), Affect cognition and social behaviour—New evidence and integrative attempts (pp. 25–43). Gottingen: Mogrefe.
go back to reference Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C., Randolph, C., Goldberg, T. E., & Weinberger, D. R. (1997). Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 159–165.PubMedCrossRef Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C., Randolph, C., Goldberg, T. E., & Weinberger, D. R. (1997). Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 159–165.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gorwood, P., Corruble, E., Falissard, B.,Goodwin. D. (2008). Toxic effects of depression on brain function: Impairment of delayed recall and the cumulative length of depressive disorder in a large sample of depressed outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(6), 731–739.CrossRef Gorwood, P., Corruble, E., Falissard, B.,Goodwin. D. (2008). Toxic effects of depression on brain function: Impairment of delayed recall and the cumulative length of depressive disorder in a large sample of depressed outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(6), 731–739.CrossRef
go back to reference Hammar, A. (2003). Automatic and effortful information processing in unipolar major depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44(5), 409–413.PubMedCrossRef Hammar, A. (2003). Automatic and effortful information processing in unipolar major depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44(5), 409–413.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hammar, A., Strand, M., Ardal, G., Schmid, M., Lund, A., & Elliott, R. (2011). Testing the cognitive effort hypothesis of cognitive impairment in major depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 65(1), 74–80.PubMedCrossRef Hammar, A., Strand, M., Ardal, G., Schmid, M., Lund, A., & Elliott, R. (2011). Testing the cognitive effort hypothesis of cognitive impairment in major depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 65(1), 74–80.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108(3), 356–388.CrossRef Hasher, L., & Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108(3), 356–388.CrossRef
go back to reference Hasselbalch, B. J., Knorr, U., & Kessing, L. V. (2011). Cognitive impairment in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 134(1), 20–31.PubMedCrossRef Hasselbalch, B. J., Knorr, U., & Kessing, L. V. (2011). Cognitive impairment in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 134(1), 20–31.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2007). Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: Relationship to subclinical measures of depression. Emotion, 7(1), 68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Holmes, A. J., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2007). Task feedback effects on conflict monitoring and executive control: Relationship to subclinical measures of depression. Emotion, 7(1), 68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Jaeger, J., Berns, S., Uzelac, S., & Davis-Conway, S. (2006). Neurocognitive deficits and disability in major depressive disorder. Psychiatric Research, 145(1), 39–48.CrossRef Jaeger, J., Berns, S., Uzelac, S., & Davis-Conway, S. (2006). Neurocognitive deficits and disability in major depressive disorder. Psychiatric Research, 145(1), 39–48.CrossRef
go back to reference Jensen, O., & Tesche, C. D. (2002). Frontal theta activity in humans increases with memory load in a working memory task. European journal of Neuroscience, 15(8), 1395–1399.CrossRef Jensen, O., & Tesche, C. D. (2002). Frontal theta activity in humans increases with memory load in a working memory task. European journal of Neuroscience, 15(8), 1395–1399.CrossRef
go back to reference Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Updating the contents of working memory in depression: Interference from irrelevant negative material. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(1), 182–192.PubMedCrossRef Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Updating the contents of working memory in depression: Interference from irrelevant negative material. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(1), 182–192.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Keefe, R. S., Goldberg, T. E., Harvey, P. D., Gold, J. M., Poe, M. P., & Coughenour, L. (2004). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: Reliability, sensitivity, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophrenia Research, 68(2), 283–297.PubMedCrossRef Keefe, R. S., Goldberg, T. E., Harvey, P. D., Gold, J. M., Poe, M. P., & Coughenour, L. (2004). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: Reliability, sensitivity, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophrenia Research, 68(2), 283–297.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Klimesch, W. (1999). EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: A review and analysis. Brain Research Reviews, 29(2), 169–195.PubMedCrossRef Klimesch, W. (1999). EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: A review and analysis. Brain Research Reviews, 29(2), 169–195.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Knyazev, G. G., Slobodskoj-Plusnin, J. Y., Bocharov, A. V., & Pylkova, L. V. (2011). The default mode network and EEG alpha oscillations: An independent component analysis. Brain Research, 1402, 67–79.PubMedCrossRef Knyazev, G. G., Slobodskoj-Plusnin, J. Y., Bocharov, A. V., & Pylkova, L. V. (2011). The default mode network and EEG alpha oscillations: An independent component analysis. Brain Research, 1402, 67–79.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lahr, D., Beblo, T., & Hartje, W. (2007). Cognitive performance and subjective complaints before and after remission of major depression. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12(1), 25–45.PubMedCrossRef Lahr, D., Beblo, T., & Hartje, W. (2007). Cognitive performance and subjective complaints before and after remission of major depression. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12(1), 25–45.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lee, R. S., Hermens, D. F., Porter, M. A., & Redoblado-Hodge, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in first-episode major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140(2), 113–124.PubMedCrossRef Lee, R. S., Hermens, D. F., Porter, M. A., & Redoblado-Hodge, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in first-episode major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 140(2), 113–124.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lim, G. Y., Tam, W. W., Lu, Y., Ho, C. S., Zhang, M. W., & Ho, R. C. (2018). Prevalence of depression in the community from 30 countries between 1994 and 2014. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 2861.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lim, G. Y., Tam, W. W., Lu, Y., Ho, C. S., Zhang, M. W., & Ho, R. C. (2018). Prevalence of depression in the community from 30 countries between 1994 and 2014. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 2861.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Martell, C. R., Addis, M. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York: WW Norton & Co. Martell, C. R., Addis, M. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York: WW Norton & Co.
go back to reference McGurk, S. R., Mueser, K. T., Feldman, K., Wolfe, R., & Pascaris, A. (2007). Cognitive training for supported employment: 2–3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(3), 437–441.CrossRef McGurk, S. R., Mueser, K. T., Feldman, K., Wolfe, R., & Pascaris, A. (2007). Cognitive training for supported employment: 2–3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(3), 437–441.CrossRef
go back to reference McIntyre, R. S., Cha, D. S., Soczynska, J. K., Woldeyohannes, H. O., Gallaugher, L. A., Kudlow, P., … Baskaran, A. (2013). Cognitive deficits and functional outcomes in major depressive disorder: Determinants, substrates, and treatment interventions. Depression and Anxiety, 30(6), 515–527. McIntyre, R. S., Cha, D. S., Soczynska, J. K., Woldeyohannes, H. O., Gallaugher, L. A., Kudlow, P., … Baskaran, A. (2013). Cognitive deficits and functional outcomes in major depressive disorder: Determinants, substrates, and treatment interventions. Depression and Anxiety30(6), 515–527.
go back to reference McIntyre, R. S., & Lee, Y. (2016). Cognition in major depressive disorder: A ‘Systemically Important Functional Index’ (SIFI). Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(1), 48–55.PubMedCrossRef McIntyre, R. S., & Lee, Y. (2016). Cognition in major depressive disorder: A ‘Systemically Important Functional Index’ (SIFI). Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(1), 48–55.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Medalia, A., Revheim, N., & Herlands, T. (2009). Cognitive remediation for psychological disorders: Therapist guide. USA: Oxford University Press.CrossRef Medalia, A., Revheim, N., & Herlands, T. (2009). Cognitive remediation for psychological disorders: Therapist guide. USA: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Motter, J. N., Pimontel, M. A., Rindskopf, D., Devanand, D. P., Doraiswamy, P. M., & Sneed, J. R. (2016). Computerized cognitive training and functional recovery in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 189, 184–191.PubMedCrossRef Motter, J. N., Pimontel, M. A., Rindskopf, D., Devanand, D. P., Doraiswamy, P. M., & Sneed, J. R. (2016). Computerized cognitive training and functional recovery in major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 189, 184–191.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Naismith, S. L., Diamond, K., Carter, P. E., Norrie, L. M., Redoblado-Hodge, M. A., Lewis, S. J., et al. (2011). Enhancing memory in late-life depression: The effects of a combined psychoeducation and cognitive training program. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(3), 240–248.PubMedCrossRef Naismith, S. L., Diamond, K., Carter, P. E., Norrie, L. M., Redoblado-Hodge, M. A., Lewis, S. J., et al. (2011). Enhancing memory in late-life depression: The effects of a combined psychoeducation and cognitive training program. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(3), 240–248.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Naismith, S. L., Redoblado-Hodge, M. A., Lewis, S. J., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. B. (2010). Cognitive training in affective disorders improves memory: A preliminary study using the NEAR approach. Journal of Affective Disorders, 121(3), 258–262.PubMedCrossRef Naismith, S. L., Redoblado-Hodge, M. A., Lewis, S. J., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. B. (2010). Cognitive training in affective disorders improves memory: A preliminary study using the NEAR approach. Journal of Affective Disorders, 121(3), 258–262.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Onton, J., Delorme, A., & Makeig, S. (2005). Frontal midline EEG dynamics during working memory. Neuroimage, 27(2), 341–356.PubMedCrossRef Onton, J., Delorme, A., & Makeig, S. (2005). Frontal midline EEG dynamics during working memory. Neuroimage, 27(2), 341–356.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Partington, J. E., & Leiter, R. G. (1949). Halstead-Reitan trail making test. Arizona: Reitan Neuropsychology Laboratory. Partington, J. E., & Leiter, R. G. (1949). Halstead-Reitan trail making test. Arizona: Reitan Neuropsychology Laboratory.
go back to reference Quigley, L., Wen, A., & Dobson, K. S. (2017). Avoidance and depression vulnerability: An examination of avoidance in remitted and currently depressed individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 183–188.PubMedCrossRef Quigley, L., Wen, A., & Dobson, K. S. (2017). Avoidance and depression vulnerability: An examination of avoidance in remitted and currently depressed individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 97, 183–188.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Raichle, M. E. (2015). The brain's default mode network. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38, 433–447.PubMedCrossRef Raichle, M. E. (2015). The brain's default mode network. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38, 433–447.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rock, P. L., Roiser, J. P., Riedel, W. J., & Blackwell, A. D. (2014). Cognitive impairment in depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 44(10), 2029–2040.PubMedCrossRef Rock, P. L., Roiser, J. P., Riedel, W. J., & Blackwell, A. D. (2014). Cognitive impairment in depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 44(10), 2029–2040.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rowland, N., Meile, M. J., & Nicolaidis, S. (1985). EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes. Science, 228(4700), 750–752.CrossRef Rowland, N., Meile, M. J., & Nicolaidis, S. (1985). EEG alpha activity reflects attentional demands, and beta activity reflects emotional and cognitive processes. Science, 228(4700), 750–752.CrossRef
go back to reference Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Harnett-Sheehan, K., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., …, Dunbar, G. (1998). The M.I.N.I. International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(suppl 20): 22–33. Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Harnett-Sheehan, K., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., …, Dunbar, G. (1998). The M.I.N.I. International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(suppl 20): 22–33.
go back to reference Spreen, O. D., & Strauss, E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychologial tests. In Administration, norms, and commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Spreen, O. D., & Strauss, E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychologial tests. In Administration, norms, and commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Srisurapanont, M., Bautista, D., Chen, C. H., Wang, G., Udomratn, P., & Eurviriyanukul, K. (2015). Subjective memory and concentration deficits in medication-free, non-elderly Asians with major depressive disorder: Prevalence and their correlates. Journal of Affective Disorders, 171, 105–110.PubMedCrossRef Srisurapanont, M., Bautista, D., Chen, C. H., Wang, G., Udomratn, P., & Eurviriyanukul, K. (2015). Subjective memory and concentration deficits in medication-free, non-elderly Asians with major depressive disorder: Prevalence and their correlates. Journal of Affective Disorders, 171, 105–110.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Steffens, D. C., Wagner, H. R., Levy, R. M., Horn, K. A., & Krishnan, K. R. R. (2001). Performance feedback deficit in geriatric depression. Biological Psychiatry, 50(5), 358–363.PubMedCrossRef Steffens, D. C., Wagner, H. R., Levy, R. M., Horn, K. A., & Krishnan, K. R. R. (2001). Performance feedback deficit in geriatric depression. Biological Psychiatry, 50(5), 358–363.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Svendsen, A. M., Kessing, L. V., Munkholm, K., Vinberg, M., & Miskowiak, K. W. (2012). Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 66(4), 248–253.PubMedCrossRef Svendsen, A. M., Kessing, L. V., Munkholm, K., Vinberg, M., & Miskowiak, K. W. (2012). Is there an association between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in patients with affective disorders? Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 66(4), 248–253.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tran, T., Hagen, E.F., Hollenstein, T., & Bowie, C. R. (2019). Physical and cognitive effort-based decision-making in depression: Relationship to symptoms and functioning. Manuscript under review for publication. Tran, T., Hagen, E.F., Hollenstein, T., & Bowie, C. R. (2019). Physical and cognitive effort-based decision-making in depression: Relationship to symptoms and functioning. Manuscript under review for publication.
go back to reference Vanderhasselt, M. A., & De Raedt, R. (2009). Impairments in cognitive control persist during remission from depression and are related to the number of past episodes: An event related potentials study. Biological Psychology, 81(3), 169–176.PubMedCrossRef Vanderhasselt, M. A., & De Raedt, R. (2009). Impairments in cognitive control persist during remission from depression and are related to the number of past episodes: An event related potentials study. Biological Psychology, 81(3), 169–176.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Memory Scale (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson. Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Memory Scale (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
go back to reference Weiland-Fiedler, P., Erickson, K., Waldeck, T., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Pike, D., Bonne, O., … Neumeister, A. (2004). Evidence for continuing neuropsychological impairments in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82(2), 253–258. Weiland-Fiedler, P., Erickson, K., Waldeck, T., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Pike, D., Bonne, O., … Neumeister, A. (2004). Evidence for continuing neuropsychological impairments in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders82(2), 253–258.
go back to reference Wykes, T., Huddy, V., Cellard, C., McGurk, S. R., & Czobor, P. (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: Methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 472–485.CrossRef Wykes, T., Huddy, V., Cellard, C., McGurk, S. R., & Czobor, P. (2011). A meta-analysis of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia: Methodology and effect sizes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 472–485.CrossRef
go back to reference Zimmerman, M., Martinez, J., Attiullah, N., Friedman, M., Toba, C., & Boerescu, D. A. (2012). Symptom differences between depressed outpatients who are in remission according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale who do and do not consider themselves to be in remission. Journal of Affective Disorders, 142(1–3), 77–81.PubMedCrossRef Zimmerman, M., Martinez, J., Attiullah, N., Friedman, M., Toba, C., & Boerescu, D. A. (2012). Symptom differences between depressed outpatients who are in remission according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale who do and do not consider themselves to be in remission. Journal of Affective Disorders, 142(1–3), 77–81.PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Brain of Thrones: Cognitive Effort and Perceived Performance During a Cognitive Task in Major Depressive Disorder
Auteurs
Chelsea Wood-Ross
Michael W. Best
Melissa Milanovic
Christopher R. Bowie
Publicatiedatum
12-09-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 5/2021
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10145-w

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2021

Cognitive Therapy and Research 5/2021 Naar de uitgave