Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Previous work on peer victimization has focused primarily on academic outcomes and negative indicators of youth involved in bullying. Few studies have taken a strength-based approach to examine attributes associated with bullies and victims of bullying. As such, we examined developmental trajectories of moral, performance, and civic character components, and their links to bully status using data from 713 youth (63 % female) who participated in Wave 3 (approximately Grade 7) through Wave 6 (approximately Grade 10) of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that moral character was stable across waves, whereas civic character increased slightly by Wave 6. Trajectories for performance character varied; some youth alternatively displayed positive versus negative growth. Youth who reported bullying behavior reported lower initial levels of moral, performance, and civic character as compared to youth not involved in bullying. Bully–victims reported lower initial levels of moral and civic character as compared to youth not involved in bullying. Implications for future work examining character-related components in the context of peer victimization are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Anderson, G. E., Whipple, A. D., & Jimerson, S. R. (2002). Grade retention: Achievement and mental health outcomes. National Association of School Psychologists, pp. 1–4. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from http://www.cdl.org/resource-library/articles/grade_retention.php.
Anthony, E. (1969). The reactions of adults to adolescents and their behavior. In G. Caplan & S. Lebovic (Eds.), Adolescence: Psychosocial perspectives (p. 77). New York, NY: Basic Books.
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2006). Lifespan theory in developmental psychology. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 569–664). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Bandura, A. (1960). Relationship of family patterns to child behavior disorders. Standford University Progress Report, Project No. M-1734, U.S. Public Health Service.
Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., & Syvertsen, A. K. (2011). The contribution of the developmental assets framework to positive youth development theory and practice. In R. M. Lerner, J. V. Lerner, & J. B. Benson (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (pp. 197–230). London: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-386492-5.00008-7.
Berkowitz, M. W., & Puka, W. (2009). Dissent and character education. In M. Gordon (Ed.), Reclaiming dissent: Civic education for the 21st century (pp. 107–130). Amsterdam: Sense Publishers.
Berkowitz, L. (2011). What works in values education. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(3), 153–158.
Boston, B. O., Pearson, S. S., & Halperin, S. (2005). Restoring the balance between academics and civic engagement in public schools. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum and Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Bowers, E. P., Gestsdottir, S., Geldhof, J. G., Nikitin, J., von Eye, A., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). Developmental trajectories of intentional self regulation in adolescence: The role of parenting and implications for positive and problematic outcomes among diverse youth. Journal of Adolescence,34, 1193–1206. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.07.006. PubMedCrossRef
Brandstatter, V. (1998). Action perspectives on human development. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. Theoretica, pp. 807–863). New York, NY: Wiley.
Damon, W. (1988). The moral child: Nurturing children’s natural moral growth. New York, NY: Free Press.
Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (2008). Entrepreneurship across the life span: A developmental analysis and review of key findings (pp. 1–24). Kansas City: Kauffman Foundation.
Davidson, M., Khmelkov, V., & Baker, K. (2011). Sustainability and enduring impact: Shaping an intentional culture of excellence and ethics. Journal of Character & Leadership Integration,2, 35–50.
Douvan, J. D., & Adelson, J. (1966). The adolescent experience. New York, NY: Wiley.
Eaton, D. K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., et al. (2010). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2009. MMWR Surveillance Summaries,59, 1–142.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Karbon, M., Smith, M., & Maszk, P. (1996). The relations of children’s dispositional empathy-related responding to their emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Developmental Psychology,32, 195. CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 646–718). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review,32, 365–383.
Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., Johnson, D., et al. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners: The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance. Chicago: University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.
Freud, A. (1969). Adolescence as a developmental disturbance. In G. Caplan & S. Lebovici (Eds.), Adolescence (pp. 5–10). New York: Basic Books.
Hall, G. S. (1904). Adolescence: Its psychology and its relations to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion, and education (Vol. 1 & 2). New York: Appleton.
Harter, S. (1988). Manual for the self-perception profile for adolescents. Denver, CO: University of Denver.
Hartshorne, H., & May, M. A. (1928). Studies in the nature of character. Volume 1: Studies in deceit. New York: Macmillan.
Jelicic, H., Bobek, D. L., Phelps, E., Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2007). Using positive youth development to predict contribution and risk behaviors in early adolescence: Findings from the first two waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. International Journal of Behavioral Development,31, 263–273. doi: 10.1177/0165025407076439. CrossRef
Lapsley, D. K., & Narvaez, D. (2006). Character education. In A. Renninger & I. Siegel (Volume Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 4, W. Damon & R. Lerner, Series Eds.) (pp. 248–296). New York: Wiley.
Leffert, N., Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Sharma, A. R., Drake, D. R., Dale, A., et al. (1998). Developmental assets: Measurement and prediction of risk behaviors among adolescents. Applied Developmental Science,2, 37–41. CrossRef
Lerner, R. M. (1984). On the nature of human plasticity. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Lerner, R. M., Alberts, A. E., & Bobek, D. (2007). Thriving youth, flourishing civil society—How positive youth development strengthens democracy and social justice. In Bertelsmann Stiftung (Ed.), Civic engagement as an educational goal (pp. 21–35). Guterslöh: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung.
Lerner, J. V., Bowers, E. P., Minor, K., Lewin-Bizan, S., Boyd, M. J., Mueller, M. K., et al. (2013). Positive youth development: Processes, philosophies, and programs. In R. M. Lerner, M. A. Easterbrooks, & J. Mistry (Eds.), I. B. Weiner (Editor-in-chief), Handbook of psychology, Volume 6:Developmental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 365–392). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Almerigi, J., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdóttir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Journal of Early Adolescence,25(1), 17–71. CrossRef
Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., von Eye, A., Bowers, E. P., & Lewin-Bizan, S. (2011). Individual and contextual bases of thriving in adolescence: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Journal of Adolescence, 34(6), 1107–1228.
Lerner, J. V., Phelps, E., Forman, Y., & Bowers, E. P. (2009a). Positive youth development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 524–558). New York: Wiley. CrossRef
Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (2004). Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. CrossRef
Lerner, R. M., von Eye, A., Lerner, J. V., & Lewin-Bizan, S. (2009b). Exploring the foundations and functions of adolescent thriving within the 4-H study of positive youth development: A view of the issues. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(5), 567–570.
Lerner, R. M., von Eye, A., Lerner, J. V., Lewin-Bizan, S., & Bowers, E. P. (2010). Special issue introduction: The meaning and measurement of thriving: A view of the issues. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,39(7), 707–719.
Lickona, T., & Davidson, M. (2005). Smart & good high schools: Integrating excellence and ethics for success in school, work, and beyond. Washington, DC: Character Education Partnership.
Ma, L., Phelps, E., Lerner, J. V., & Lerner, R. M. (2009b). Longitudinal research in school bullying: Adolescents who bully and who are bullied. In D. Buchanan, C. B. Fisher, & L. Gable (Eds.), Research with high-risk populations: Balancing science, ethics, and law (pp. 93–108). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Maggs, J. L., & Schulenberg, J. (2001). Editors’ introduction: Prevention as altering the course of development and the complementary purposes of developmental and prevention sciences. Applied Developmental Science,5, 196–200. CrossRef
Nansel, T., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simmons-Morton, B., & Schmidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth. Journal of American Medical Association,285, 2094–2100. CrossRef
Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L. (1992). Children’s peer relations: A meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin,113, 99–128. CrossRef
Nickerson, A. B., Brock, S. E., Change, Y., & O’Malley, M. (2005). Responding to children victimized by their peers. Journal of School Violence,5, 19–32. CrossRef
Noddings, N. (1994). Conversation as moral education. Journal of Moral Education,23, 107–118. CrossRef
Nucci, L. P., & Narvaez, D. (2008). Handbook of moral and character education. New York: Routledge.
Olweus, D. (1991). Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. In K. R. Pepler (Ed.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 411–448). Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum.
Olweus, D. (1996). The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Bergen: Mimeo, Research Center for Health Promotion (HEMIL), University of Bergen.
Olweus, D. (2003). A profile of bullying at school. Educational Leadership,60, 12–17.
Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. F. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention, book nine: Bullying prevention program. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Overton, W. F. (2013). A new paradigm for developmental science: Relationism and relational-developmental-systems. Applied Developmental Science,17, 94–107. CrossRef
Overton, W. F. & Muller, U. (2012). Meta-theories, theories, and concepts in the study of development. In R. M. Lerner, M. A. Easterbrooks, & J. Mistry (Eds.), Irving B. Weiner (Editor-in-chief), Comprehensive handbook of psychology: Developmental psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 19–58). New York: Wiley.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press.
Phelps, E., Balsano, A. B., Fay, K. E., Peltz, J. S., Zimmerman, S. M., Lerner, R. M., et al. (2007). Nuances in early adolescent developmental trajectories of positive and problematic/risk behaviors: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,16, 473–496. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2006.11.006. PubMedCrossRef
Pittman, K., Irby, M., & Ferber, T. (2001). Unfinished business: Further reflections on a decade of promoting youth development. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities and challenges (pp. 3–50). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. CrossRef
Pratt, M. W., Arnold, M. L., & Lawford, H. (2009). Growing toward care: A narrative approach to prosocial moral identity and generativity of personality in emerging adulthood. In D. Narvaez & D. K. Lapsley (Eds.), Personality, identity, and character: Explorations in moral psychology (pp. 295–315). New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Robers, S., Zhang, J., Truman, J., & Snyder, T. D. (2010). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2010. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003a). Youth development programs: Risk, prevention and policy. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine,32, 170–82. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12606110.
Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003b). What is a youth development program? Identifying defining principles. Promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development: A handbook of program and policy innovations,2, 197–224.
Schwartz, S. J., Pantin, H., Coatsworth, J. D., & Szapocznik, J. (2007). Addressing the challenges and opportunities for today’s youth: Toward an integrative model and its implications for research and intervention. The Journal of Primary Prevention,28, 117–144. doi: 10.1007/s10935-007-0084-x. PubMedCrossRef
Seider, S. (2007). Frame-changing experiences and the freshman year: Catalyzing a commitment to service-work and social action. Journal of College and Character,8, 1–18. CrossRef
Seider, S. (2012). Character compass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Seider, S., Gilbert, J. K., & Gomez, J. (2012). The role of moral and performance character strengths in predicting achievement and conduct among urban middle school students. Teachers College Record,115, 1–18.
Shields, D. L. (2011). Character as the aim of education. Phi Delta Kappan,92, 48–53.
Small, S. A., & Rodgers, K. B. (1992). Teen Assessment Project survey question bank. Compilation and documentation of over 350 questions used in different TAP surveys. Technical Report of the Wisconsin Center for Action. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison/Extension.
Smith, P. K., Morita, Y., Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R. F., & Slee, P. (1999). The nature of school bullying: A cross national perspective. London: Routledge.
Sokol, B. W., Hammond, S. I., & Berkowitz, M. W. (2010). International research handbook on values education and student wellbeing. In T. Lovat, R. Toomey, & N. Clement (Eds.), International research handbook on values education and student wellbeing (pp. 579–603). Dordrecht: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8675-4. CrossRef
Solberg, M. E., & Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Aggressive Behavior,29, 239–268. CrossRef
Urban, J. B., Lewin-Bizan, S., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). The role of neighborhood ecological assets and activity involvement in youth developmental outcomes: Differential impacts of asset poor and asset rich neighborhoods. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,30, 601–614. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2009.07.003. CrossRef
Walker, L. J., & Pitts, R. C. (1998). Naturalistic conceptions of moral maturity. Developmental psychology, 34, 403–19. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9597350.
Zaff, J. F., Kawashima-Ginsberg, K., Lin, E. S., Lamb, M., Balsano, A. B., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). Developmental trajectories of civic engagement across adolescence: Disaggregation of an integrated construct. Journal of Adolescence,34, 1207–1220. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.07.005. PubMedCrossRef
- Beyond the Deficit Model: Bullying and Trajectories of Character Virtues in Adolescence
Lacey J. Hilliard
Edmond P. Bowers
Kathleen N. Greenman
Rachel M. Hershberg
G. John Geldhof
Samantha A. Glickman
Jacqueline V. Lerner
Richard M. Lerner
- Springer US