Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

Open Access 24-05-2019 | Original Paper

Behavioral Artistry: Examining the Relationship Between the Interpersonal Skills and Effective Practice Repertoires of Applied Behavior Analysis Practitioners

Auteurs: Kevin Callahan, Richard M. Foxx, Adam Swierczynski, Xing Aerts, Smita Mehta, Mary-Ellen McComb, Susan M. Nichols, Gabrielle Segal, Andrew Donald, Rachita Sharma

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 9/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study investigated interpersonal skills associated with the concept of behavioral artistry (BA), a repertoire of practitioner behaviors including care, attentiveness, and creativity, among others, associated with the effective delivery of applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment. Survey results indicated parents of children with autism preferred BA descriptors for ABA therapists over non-BA descriptors. A separate survey of 212 university students on a standardized personality assessment revealed students majoring and/or working in the field of ABA had lower levels of BA than those in other human services professions. Practitioners with higher BA scores were observed and rated more positively in their delivery of ABA for children with autism. Implications for training/supervising effective ABA practitioners within a BA model are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Abel, M. H., & Brown, L. K. (1998). Validity of the 16PF reasoning ability scale. Psychological Reports, 83, 904–906.CrossRef Abel, M. H., & Brown, L. K. (1998). Validity of the 16PF reasoning ability scale. Psychological Reports, 83, 904–906.CrossRef
go back to reference Addis, M. E., & Krasnow, A. D. (2000). A national survey of practicing psychologists’ attitudes towards psychotherapy treatment manuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 331–339.CrossRefPubMed Addis, M. E., & Krasnow, A. D. (2000). A national survey of practicing psychologists’ attitudes towards psychotherapy treatment manuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 331–339.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Anderson, T., Ogles, B. M., Patterson, C. L., Lambert, M. J., & Vermeersch, D. A. (2009). Therapist effects: Facilitative interpersonal skills as a predictor of therapist success. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 755–768.CrossRefPubMed Anderson, T., Ogles, B. M., Patterson, C. L., Lambert, M. J., & Vermeersch, D. A. (2009). Therapist effects: Facilitative interpersonal skills as a predictor of therapist success. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 755–768.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Callahan, K., Henson, R., & Cowan, A. (2008). Social validation of evidence-based practices in autism by parents, teachers, and administrators. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 678–692.CrossRefPubMed Callahan, K., Henson, R., & Cowan, A. (2008). Social validation of evidence-based practices in autism by parents, teachers, and administrators. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 678–692.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Callahan, K., Hughes, H. L., Mehta, S., Toussaint, K. A., Nichols, S. M., Ma, P., et al. (2017). Social validity of evidence-based practices and emerging interventions in autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 32, 188–197.CrossRef Callahan, K., Hughes, H. L., Mehta, S., Toussaint, K. A., Nichols, S. M., Ma, P., et al. (2017). Social validity of evidence-based practices and emerging interventions in autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 32, 188–197.CrossRef
go back to reference Callahan, K., Shukla-Mehta, S., Magee, S., & Wie, M. (2010). ABA vs. TEACCH: The case for defining and validating comprehensive treatment models in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 74–88.CrossRefPubMed Callahan, K., Shukla-Mehta, S., Magee, S., & Wie, M. (2010). ABA vs. TEACCH: The case for defining and validating comprehensive treatment models in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 74–88.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Carkhuff, R. R. (2009). The art of healing (9th ed.). Amherst, MA: Possibilities Publishing. Carkhuff, R. R. (2009). The art of healing (9th ed.). Amherst, MA: Possibilities Publishing.
go back to reference Cattell, R. B., Cattell, A. K. S., & Cattell, H. E. P. (2013). 16PF fifth edition questionnaire. Carmel, IN: Performance Assessment Network. Cattell, R. B., Cattell, A. K. S., & Cattell, H. E. P. (2013). 16PF fifth edition questionnaire. Carmel, IN: Performance Assessment Network.
go back to reference Chaitoff, A., Sun, B., Windover, A., Bokar, D., Featherall, J., Rothberg, M. B., & Misra-Hebert, A. D. (2017). Associations between physician empathy, physician characteristics, and standardized measures of patient experience. Academic Medicine, 92(10), 1464–1471.CrossRefPubMed Chaitoff, A., Sun, B., Windover, A., Bokar, D., Featherall, J., Rothberg, M. B., & Misra-Hebert, A. D. (2017). Associations between physician empathy, physician characteristics, and standardized measures of patient experience. Academic Medicine, 92(10), 1464–1471.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cooke, T. P., & Cooke, S. (1974). Behavior modification: Answers to some ethical issues. Psychology in the Schools, 11, 5–10.CrossRefPubMed Cooke, T. P., & Cooke, S. (1974). Behavior modification: Answers to some ethical issues. Psychology in the Schools, 11, 5–10.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
go back to reference Critchfield, T. S., & Reed, D. D. (2017). The fuzzy concept of applied behavior analysis research. The Behavior Analyst, 40, 123–159.CrossRef Critchfield, T. S., & Reed, D. D. (2017). The fuzzy concept of applied behavior analysis research. The Behavior Analyst, 40, 123–159.CrossRef
go back to reference Derksen, F., Bensing, J., & Lagro-Janssen, A. (2013). Effectiveness of empathy in general practice: A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice, 63(606), 76–84.CrossRef Derksen, F., Bensing, J., & Lagro-Janssen, A. (2013). Effectiveness of empathy in general practice: A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice, 63(606), 76–84.CrossRef
go back to reference Eikeseth, S. (2010). Examination of qualifications required of an EIBI professional. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 11, 239–246.CrossRef Eikeseth, S. (2010). Examination of qualifications required of an EIBI professional. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 11, 239–246.CrossRef
go back to reference Ferster, C. B., & DeMyer, M. K. (1961). The development of performances in autistic children in an automatically controlled environment. Journal of Chronic Disorders, 13, 312–345.CrossRef Ferster, C. B., & DeMyer, M. K. (1961). The development of performances in autistic children in an automatically controlled environment. Journal of Chronic Disorders, 13, 312–345.CrossRef
go back to reference Ferster, C. B., & DeMyer, M. K. (1962). A method for the experimental analysis of the behavior of autistic children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 32, 89–98.CrossRefPubMed Ferster, C. B., & DeMyer, M. K. (1962). A method for the experimental analysis of the behavior of autistic children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 32, 89–98.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Foxx, R. M. (1985). The Jack Tizzard memorial lecture: Decreasing behaviours: Clinical, ethical, and environmental issues. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 10, 189–199.CrossRef Foxx, R. M. (1985). The Jack Tizzard memorial lecture: Decreasing behaviours: Clinical, ethical, and environmental issues. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 10, 189–199.CrossRef
go back to reference Foxx, R. M. (1998). Twenty-five years of applied behavior analysis: Lessons learned. Discriminanten, 4, 13–31. Foxx, R. M. (1998). Twenty-five years of applied behavior analysis: Lessons learned. Discriminanten, 4, 13–31.
go back to reference Foxx, R. M. (2016). Why ABA is not a fad, a pseudoscience, a dubious or controversial treatment, or politically correct. In R. M. Foxx & J. A. Mulick (Eds.), Controversial therapies for autism and intellectual disabilities: Fads, fashion and science in professional practice (pp. 422–432). New York: Taylor and Francis. Foxx, R. M. (2016). Why ABA is not a fad, a pseudoscience, a dubious or controversial treatment, or politically correct. In R. M. Foxx & J. A. Mulick (Eds.), Controversial therapies for autism and intellectual disabilities: Fads, fashion and science in professional practice (pp. 422–432). New York: Taylor and Francis.
go back to reference Frostig, M., & Maslow, P. (1973). Learning problems in the classroom. New York: Grune & Stratton. Frostig, M., & Maslow, P. (1973). Learning problems in the classroom. New York: Grune & Stratton.
go back to reference Geller, E. S. (2014). Actively caring for people: Cultivating a culture of compassion. Goodrich, MI: Make-A-Difference LLC. Geller, E. S. (2014). Actively caring for people: Cultivating a culture of compassion. Goodrich, MI: Make-A-Difference LLC.
go back to reference Holdsambeck, R. D., & Pennypacker, H. S. (Eds.). (2016). Behavioral science: Tales of inspiration, discovery, and service. Littleton, MA: Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. Holdsambeck, R. D., & Pennypacker, H. S. (Eds.). (2016). Behavioral science: Tales of inspiration, discovery, and service. Littleton, MA: Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
go back to reference Holmqvist, R. (2013). Therapeutic alliance predicts symptomatic improvement session by session. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 317–328.CrossRefPubMed Holmqvist, R. (2013). Therapeutic alliance predicts symptomatic improvement session by session. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 317–328.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Fluckiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alliance in individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48, 9–16.CrossRefPubMed Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Fluckiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alliance in individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 48, 9–16.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. (2009). 16PF fifth edition questionnaire manual. Champaign, IL: Author. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. (2009). 16PF fifth edition questionnaire manual. Champaign, IL: Author.
go back to reference Ivey, A. E., Packard, N. G., & Ivey, M. B. (2018). Basic attending skills: Foundations of empathic relationships and problem solving (6th ed.). Alexandria, VA: Microtraining Associates, Inc. Ivey, A. E., Packard, N. G., & Ivey, M. B. (2018). Basic attending skills: Foundations of empathic relationships and problem solving (6th ed.). Alexandria, VA: Microtraining Associates, Inc.
go back to reference Johnston, J. M., Foxx, R. M., Jacobson, J. W., Green, G., & Mulick, J. A. (2006). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 29, 141–148.CrossRef Johnston, J. M., Foxx, R. M., Jacobson, J. W., Green, G., & Mulick, J. A. (2006). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 29, 141–148.CrossRef
go back to reference Judd, C. M., McClelland, G. H., & Ryan, C. S. (2009). Data analysis: A model comparison approach (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. Judd, C. M., McClelland, G. H., & Ryan, C. S. (2009). Data analysis: A model comparison approach (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
go back to reference Keijsers, G. P. J., Schaap, C. P. D. R., & Hoogduin, C. A. L. (2000). The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy: A review of empirical studies. Behavior Modification, 24, 264–297.CrossRefPubMed Keijsers, G. P. J., Schaap, C. P. D. R., & Hoogduin, C. A. L. (2000). The impact of interpersonal patient and therapist behavior on outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy: A review of empirical studies. Behavior Modification, 24, 264–297.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kerns, C. M., Collier, A., Lewin, A. B., & Storch, E. A. (2018). Therapeutic alliance in youth with autism spectrum disorder receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety. Autism, 22, 636–640.CrossRefPubMed Kerns, C. M., Collier, A., Lewin, A. B., & Storch, E. A. (2018). Therapeutic alliance in youth with autism spectrum disorder receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety. Autism, 22, 636–640.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lambert, M. J., & Barley, D. E. (2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy, 38, 357–361.CrossRef Lambert, M. J., & Barley, D. E. (2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy, 38, 357–361.CrossRef
go back to reference Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R., McEachin, J., Taubman, M., Rosales, S., Ross, R. K., et al. (2016). Applied behavior analysis is a science and therefore, progressive. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 720–731.CrossRefPubMed Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R., McEachin, J., Taubman, M., Rosales, S., Ross, R. K., et al. (2016). Applied behavior analysis is a science and therefore, progressive. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 720–731.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (Eds.). (1999). A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism. New York: DRL Books. Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (Eds.). (1999). A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism. New York: DRL Books.
go back to reference Lovaas, O. I., Freitag, G., Gold, V. J., & Kassorla, I. C. (1965). Experimental studies in childhood schizophrenia: Analysis of self-destructive behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 67–84.CrossRef Lovaas, O. I., Freitag, G., Gold, V. J., & Kassorla, I. C. (1965). Experimental studies in childhood schizophrenia: Analysis of self-destructive behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 67–84.CrossRef
go back to reference Maurice, C., Green, G., & Foxx, R. M. (Eds.). (2001). Making a difference: Behavioral intervention for autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Maurice, C., Green, G., & Foxx, R. M. (Eds.). (2001). Making a difference: Behavioral intervention for autism. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
go back to reference Maurice, C. E., Green, G. E., & Luce, S. C. (1996). Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Maurice, C. E., Green, G. E., & Luce, S. C. (1996). Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
go back to reference Mayville, E. A., & Mulick, J. A. (Eds.). (2011). Behavioral foundations of effective autism treatment. Cornwell-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan Publishing. Mayville, E. A., & Mulick, J. A. (Eds.). (2011). Behavioral foundations of effective autism treatment. Cornwell-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan Publishing.
go back to reference McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (1983). Consumer satisfaction in behavioral treatment of children: Types, issues, and recommendations. Behavior Therapy, 14, 209–225.CrossRef McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (1983). Consumer satisfaction in behavioral treatment of children: Types, issues, and recommendations. Behavior Therapy, 14, 209–225.CrossRef
go back to reference Morgan, S. R. (1991). The fundamental element of the teaching process: Empathy. In S. R. Morgan & J. Reinhart (Eds.), Interventions for students with emotional disorders (pp. 31–49). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Morgan, S. R. (1991). The fundamental element of the teaching process: Empathy. In S. R. Morgan & J. Reinhart (Eds.), Interventions for students with emotional disorders (pp. 31–49). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
go back to reference Morris, E. K. (2009). A case study in the misrepresentation of applied behavior analysis in autism: The Gernsbacher lectures. Behavior Analyst, 32, 205–240.CrossRefPubMed Morris, E. K. (2009). A case study in the misrepresentation of applied behavior analysis in autism: The Gernsbacher lectures. Behavior Analyst, 32, 205–240.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Myers, S. M., & Johnson, C. P. (2007). Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1162–1182.CrossRefPubMed Myers, S. M., & Johnson, C. P. (2007). Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120, 1162–1182.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference National Autism Center. (2015). National standards project, phase 2: Findings and conclusions: Addressing the need for evidence-based practice guidelines for autism spectrum disorder. Randolph, MA: Author. National Autism Center. (2015). National standards project, phase 2: Findings and conclusions: Addressing the need for evidence-based practice guidelines for autism spectrum disorder. Randolph, MA: Author.
go back to reference Parsons, M. B., Rollyson, J. H., & Reid, D. H. (2012). Evidence-based staff training: A guide for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 2–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Parsons, M. B., Rollyson, J. H., & Reid, D. H. (2012). Evidence-based staff training: A guide for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 2–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., & Sturmey, P. (2011). A meta-analytic study on the effectiveness of comprehensive ABA-based early intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 60–69.CrossRef Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., & Sturmey, P. (2011). A meta-analytic study on the effectiveness of comprehensive ABA-based early intervention programs for children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 60–69.CrossRef
go back to reference Riess, H., Kelley, J. M., Bailey, R. W., Dunn, E. J., & Phillips, M. (2012). Empathy training for resident physicians: A randomized controlled trial of a neuroscience-informed curriculum. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27, 1280–1286.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Riess, H., Kelley, J. M., Bailey, R. W., Dunn, E. J., & Phillips, M. (2012). Empathy training for resident physicians: A randomized controlled trial of a neuroscience-informed curriculum. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27, 1280–1286.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Risley, T. R. (2001). Do good, take data. In W. T. O’Donohue, D. A. Henderson, S. C. Hayes, J. E. Fisher, & L. J. Hayes (Eds.), A history of the behavioral therapies: Founders’ personal histories (pp. 267–287). Reno, NV: Context Press. Risley, T. R. (2001). Do good, take data. In W. T. O’Donohue, D. A. Henderson, S. C. Hayes, J. E. Fisher, & L. J. Hayes (Eds.), A history of the behavioral therapies: Founders’ personal histories (pp. 267–287). Reno, NV: Context Press.
go back to reference Schreibman, L. (2005). The science and fiction of autism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schreibman, L. (2005). The science and fiction of autism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., et al. (2015). Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2411–2428.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., et al. (2015). Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2411–2428.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Smith, D. (1974). Integrating humanism and behaviorism: Toward performance. Journal of Counseling and Development, 52, 513–519. Smith, D. (1974). Integrating humanism and behaviorism: Toward performance. Journal of Counseling and Development, 52, 513–519.
go back to reference Smith, T. (2001). Discrete trial training in the treatment of autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 86–92.CrossRef Smith, T. (2001). Discrete trial training in the treatment of autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16, 86–92.CrossRef
go back to reference Volkmar, F. (2015). Lifetime Achievement Award presentation. Salt Lake City, UT: International Meeting for Autism Research. Volkmar, F. (2015). Lifetime Achievement Award presentation. Salt Lake City, UT: International Meeting for Autism Research.
go back to reference Wandersman, A., Poppen, P. J., & Ricks, D. F. (1976). Humanism and behaviorism: Dialogue and growth. New York: Pergamon Press. Wandersman, A., Poppen, P. J., & Ricks, D. F. (1976). Humanism and behaviorism: Dialogue and growth. New York: Pergamon Press.
go back to reference Wolf, M. M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203–214.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Wolf, M. M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203–214.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Wolf, M. M., Risley, T. R., & Mees, H. (1964). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavioral problems of an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 305–312.CrossRef Wolf, M. M., Risley, T. R., & Mees, H. (1964). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavioral problems of an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 305–312.CrossRef
go back to reference Woolfolk, A. E., Woolfolk, R. L., & Wilson, G. T. (1977). A rose by any other name…: Labelling bias and attitudes toward behavior modification. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 184.CrossRefPubMed Woolfolk, A. E., Woolfolk, R. L., & Wilson, G. T. (1977). A rose by any other name…: Labelling bias and attitudes toward behavior modification. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 184.CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Behavioral Artistry: Examining the Relationship Between the Interpersonal Skills and Effective Practice Repertoires of Applied Behavior Analysis Practitioners
Auteurs
Kevin Callahan
Richard M. Foxx
Adam Swierczynski
Xing Aerts
Smita Mehta
Mary-Ellen McComb
Susan M. Nichols
Gabrielle Segal
Andrew Donald
Rachita Sharma
Publicatiedatum
24-05-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 9/2019
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04082-1

Andere artikelen Uitgave 9/2019

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 9/2019 Naar de uitgave