Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 11/2011

01-11-2011 | Original paper

Avatar Assistant: Improving Social Skills in Students with an ASD Through a Computer-Based Intervention

Auteurs: Ingrid Maria Hopkins, Michael W. Gower, Trista A. Perez, Dana S. Smith, Franklin R. Amthor, F. Casey Wimsatt, Fred J. Biasini

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 11/2011

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study assessed the efficacy of FaceSay, a computer-based social skills training program for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This randomized controlled study (N = 49) indicates that providing children with low-functioning autism (LFA) and high functioning autism (HFA) opportunities to practice attending to eye gaze, discriminating facial expressions and recognizing faces and emotions in FaceSay’s structured environment with interactive, realistic avatar assistants improved their social skills abilities. The children with LFA demonstrated improvements in two areas of the intervention: emotion recognition and social interactions. The children with HFA demonstrated improvements in all three areas: facial recognition, emotion recognition, and social interactions. These findings, particularly the measured improvements to social interactions in a natural environment, are encouraging.
Literatuur
go back to reference Adolph, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature, 372, 669–672. CrossRef Adolph, R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (1994). Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature, 372, 669–672. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). DC: Washington. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). DC: Washington.
go back to reference Autism Society of America. (2003). New autism facts. Advocate, 36(1). Autism Society of America. (2003). New autism facts. Advocate, 36(1).
go back to reference Bailey, K. J. (2001). Social competence of children with autism classified as best-outcome following behavior analytic treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B the Sciences and Engineering, 61(12-B), 6696. Bailey, K. J. (2001). Social competence of children with autism classified as best-outcome following behavior analytic treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B the Sciences and Engineering, 61(12-B), 6696.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Bullmore, E. T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, A., & Williams, P. (2002). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 1891–1898. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Bullmore, E. T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, A., & Williams, P. (2002). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 1891–1898. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, T. (1997). Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults and adults with Autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4, 311–331. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, T. (1997). Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults and adults with Autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4, 311–331. CrossRef
go back to reference Bartlett, J. C., & Searcy, J. (1993). Inversion and configuration of faces. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 281–316. PubMedCrossRef Bartlett, J. C., & Searcy, J. (1993). Inversion and configuration of faces. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 281–316. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Benton, A. L. (1980). The neuropsychology of facial recognition. American Psychologist, 35, 176–186. PubMedCrossRef Benton, A. L. (1980). The neuropsychology of facial recognition. American Psychologist, 35, 176–186. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bernard-Opitz, V. (1989). Computer assisted instruction for autistic children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 125–130. Bernard-Opitz, V. (1989). Computer assisted instruction for autistic children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 125–130.
go back to reference Bernard-Opitz, V., Sriram, N., & Nakhoda-Sapuan, S. (2001). Enhancing social problem solving in children with autism and normal children through computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 377–398. PubMedCrossRef Bernard-Opitz, V., Sriram, N., & Nakhoda-Sapuan, S. (2001). Enhancing social problem solving in children with autism and normal children through computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 377–398. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bölte, S., Feineis-Matthews, S., Leber, S., Dierks, T., Hubl, D., & Poustka, F. (2002). The development and evaluation of a computer-based program to test and to teach the recognition of facial affect. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 61(Suppl 2), 61–68. PubMed Bölte, S., Feineis-Matthews, S., Leber, S., Dierks, T., Hubl, D., & Poustka, F. (2002). The development and evaluation of a computer-based program to test and to teach the recognition of facial affect. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 61(Suppl 2), 61–68. PubMed
go back to reference Bosseler, A., & Massaro, D. W. (2003). Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 653–673. PubMedCrossRef Bosseler, A., & Massaro, D. W. (2003). Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 653–673. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Boucher, J., & Lewis, V. (1991). Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 843–859. CrossRef Boucher, J., & Lewis, V. (1991). Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 843–859. CrossRef
go back to reference Chen, S. H., & Bernard-Opitz, V. (1993). Comparison of personal and computer-assisted instruction for children with autism. Mental Retardation, 31, 368–376. PubMed Chen, S. H., & Bernard-Opitz, V. (1993). Comparison of personal and computer-assisted instruction for children with autism. Mental Retardation, 31, 368–376. PubMed
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46. CrossRef Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37–46. CrossRef
go back to reference Colby, K. (1973). The rationale for computer-based treatment of language difficulties in non-speaking autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 3, 254–260. PubMedCrossRef Colby, K. (1973). The rationale for computer-based treatment of language difficulties in non-speaking autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 3, 254–260. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Corbett, B. A., & Abdullah, M. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism? Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2(1), 2–8. Corbett, B. A., & Abdullah, M. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism? Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2(1), 2–8.
go back to reference Davies, S., Bishop, D., Manstead, A. S., & Tantam, M. (1994). Face perception in children with autism and Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1033–1058. PubMedCrossRef Davies, S., Bishop, D., Manstead, A. S., & Tantam, M. (1994). Face perception in children with autism and Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1033–1058. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975). Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
go back to reference Faja, S., Aylward, E., Bernier, R., & Dawson, G. (2008). Becoming a face expert: A computerize face-training program for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 1–24. PubMedCrossRef Faja, S., Aylward, E., Bernier, R., & Dawson, G. (2008). Becoming a face expert: A computerize face-training program for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 1–24. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fleiss, J. L. (1981). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Fleiss, J. L. (1981). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
go back to reference Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell. Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 191–197. PubMedCrossRef Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P., Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 191–197. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Golan, O., Ashwin, A., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Leggett, V., et al. (2010). Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269–279. PubMedCrossRef Golan, O., Ashwin, A., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Leggett, V., et al. (2010). Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269–279. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Golan, O., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia. Development and Psychopathology, 18(2), 591–617. PubMedCrossRef Golan, O., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Systemizing empathy: Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism to recognize complex emotions using interactive multimedia. Development and Psychopathology, 18(2), 591–617. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goldsmith, T. R., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2004). Use of technology in interventions for children with autism. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 1(2), 166–178. Goldsmith, T. R., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2004). Use of technology in interventions for children with autism. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 1(2), 166–178.
go back to reference Gresham, F. M. (1981). Assessment of children’s social skills. Journal of School Psychology, 19, 120–134. CrossRef Gresham, F. M. (1981). Assessment of children’s social skills. Journal of School Psychology, 19, 120–134. CrossRef
go back to reference Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Hauck, M., Fein, D., Waterhouse, L., & Feinstein, C. (1995). Social initiations by autistic children to adults and other children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 129–154. Hauck, M., Fein, D., Waterhouse, L., & Feinstein, C. (1995). Social initiations by autistic children to adults and other children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 129–154.
go back to reference Heiman, M., Nelson, K. E., Tjus, T., & Gillberg, C. (1995). Increasing reading and communication skills in children with autism through an interactive multimedia computer program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 459–480. CrossRef Heiman, M., Nelson, K. E., Tjus, T., & Gillberg, C. (1995). Increasing reading and communication skills in children with autism through an interactive multimedia computer program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 459–480. CrossRef
go back to reference Hobson, R. P. (1986). The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 321–342. PubMedCrossRef Hobson, R. P. (1986). The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 321–342. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hopkins, M., & Biasini, F. (2005). Children with fragile x syndrome and children with autism show distinct impairments in emotional understanding. Presented at the American psychological society conference, New York, NY. Hopkins, M., & Biasini, F. (2005). Children with fragile x syndrome and children with autism show distinct impairments in emotional understanding. Presented at the American psychological society conference, New York, NY.
go back to reference Joseph, R. M., & Tanaka, J. (2003). Holistic and part-based face recognition in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 529–542. PubMedCrossRef Joseph, R. M., & Tanaka, J. (2003). Holistic and part-based face recognition in children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 529–542. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1990). Kaufman brief intelligence test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1990). Kaufman brief intelligence test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., & McNerney, E. K. (2001). Pivotal areas in intervention for autism. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 233–243. Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., & McNerney, E. K. (2001). Pivotal areas in intervention for autism. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 233–243.
go back to reference LaCava, P., Golan, O., Baron-Cohen, S., & Smith Myles, B. (2007). Using assistive technology to teach emotion recognition to students with Asperger syndrome: A pilot study. Remedial and Special Education, 28, 174–181. CrossRef LaCava, P., Golan, O., Baron-Cohen, S., & Smith Myles, B. (2007). Using assistive technology to teach emotion recognition to students with Asperger syndrome: A pilot study. Remedial and Special Education, 28, 174–181. CrossRef
go back to reference LaCava, P., Rankin, A., Mahlios, E., Cook, K., & Simpson, R. (2010). A single case design evaluation of a software and tutor intervention addressing emotion recognition and social interaction in four boys with ASD. Autism, 14, 161–178. PubMedCrossRef LaCava, P., Rankin, A., Mahlios, E., Cook, K., & Simpson, R. (2010). A single case design evaluation of a software and tutor intervention addressing emotion recognition and social interaction in four boys with ASD. Autism, 14, 161–178. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Langdell, T. (1978). Recognition of faces: An approach to the study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 255–268. PubMedCrossRef Langdell, T. (1978). Recognition of faces: An approach to the study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 255–268. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mundy, P. (2003). Annotation: The neural basis of social impairments in autism: The role of the dorsal medial-frontal cortex and anterior cingulated system. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 793–809. PubMedCrossRef Mundy, P. (2003). Annotation: The neural basis of social impairments in autism: The role of the dorsal medial-frontal cortex and anterior cingulated system. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 793–809. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B., & Rogers, S. (1990). Are there specific emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 342–361. CrossRef Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B., & Rogers, S. (1990). Are there specific emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 342–361. CrossRef
go back to reference Panyan, M. V. (1984). Computer technology for autistic students. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 375–382. PubMedCrossRef Panyan, M. V. (1984). Computer technology for autistic students. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 375–382. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Perry, A., Condillac, R., Freeman, N. L., Dunn-Geier, J., & Belair, J. (2005). Multi-site study of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in five clinical groups of young children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 625–634. PubMedCrossRef Perry, A., Condillac, R., Freeman, N. L., Dunn-Geier, J., & Belair, J. (2005). Multi-site study of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in five clinical groups of young children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 625–634. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rhodes, G. (1988). Looking at face: First-order and second order features as determinants of facial appearance. Perception, 17, 43–63. PubMedCrossRef Rhodes, G. (1988). Looking at face: First-order and second order features as determinants of facial appearance. Perception, 17, 43–63. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sasson, N. J. (2006). The development of face processing in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 381–394. PubMedCrossRef Sasson, N. J. (2006). The development of face processing in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 381–394. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale (CARS). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventrical temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individual with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340. PubMedCrossRef Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventrical temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individual with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351–1364. PubMedCrossRef Shah, A., & Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351–1364. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Silver, M., & Oakes, P. (2001). Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or Asperger syndrome to recognize and predict emotions in others. Autism, 5, 299–316. PubMedCrossRef Silver, M., & Oakes, P. (2001). Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or Asperger syndrome to recognize and predict emotions in others. Autism, 5, 299–316. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sullivan, L. A. (1996). Facial recognition of emotions by children and adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B The Sciences and Engineering, 57(11- B), 7253. Sullivan, L. A. (1996). Facial recognition of emotions by children and adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B The Sciences and Engineering, 57(11- B), 7253.
go back to reference Tanaka, J. W., Lincoln, S., & Hegg, L. (2003). A framework for the study and treatment of face processing deficits in autism. In G. Schwarzer & H. Leder (Eds.), The development of face processing (pp. 101–119). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Tanaka, J. W., Lincoln, S., & Hegg, L. (2003). A framework for the study and treatment of face processing deficits in autism. In G. Schwarzer & H. Leder (Eds.), The development of face processing (pp. 101–119). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
go back to reference Tanaka, J. W., Wolf, J. M., Klaiman, C., Koenig, K., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., et al. (2010). Using computerized games to teach face recognition skills to children with autism spectrum disorder: the Let’s Face It! program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(8), 944–952. PubMedCrossRef Tanaka, J. W., Wolf, J. M., Klaiman, C., Koenig, K., Cockburn, J., Herlihy, L., et al. (2010). Using computerized games to teach face recognition skills to children with autism spectrum disorder: the Let’s Face It! program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(8), 944–952. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Teal, M. B., & Wiebe, M. J. (1986). A validity analysis of selected instruments used to assess autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 485–494. PubMedCrossRef Teal, M. B., & Wiebe, M. J. (1986). A validity analysis of selected instruments used to assess autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 485–494. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Whalen, C., Moss, D., Ilan, A., Vaupel, M., Fielding, P., Macdonald, K., et al. (2010). Efficacy of TeachTown: Basics computer-assisted intervention for the Intesntive Comprehensive Autism Program in Los Angeles Unified School District. Autism, 14, 179–197. PubMedCrossRef Whalen, C., Moss, D., Ilan, A., Vaupel, M., Fielding, P., Macdonald, K., et al. (2010). Efficacy of TeachTown: Basics computer-assisted intervention for the Intesntive Comprehensive Autism Program in Los Angeles Unified School District. Autism, 14, 179–197. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams White, S., Keonig, K., & Scahill, L. (2007). Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the intervention research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1858–1868. PubMedCrossRef Williams White, S., Keonig, K., & Scahill, L. (2007). Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the intervention research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1858–1868. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yamamoto, J., & Miya, T. (1999). Acquisition and transfer of sentence construction in autistic students: Analysis of computer-based teaching. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20, 355–377. PubMedCrossRef Yamamoto, J., & Miya, T. (1999). Acquisition and transfer of sentence construction in autistic students: Analysis of computer-based teaching. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20, 355–377. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Avatar Assistant: Improving Social Skills in Students with an ASD Through a Computer-Based Intervention
Auteurs
Ingrid Maria Hopkins
Michael W. Gower
Trista A. Perez
Dana S. Smith
Franklin R. Amthor
F. Casey Wimsatt
Fred J. Biasini
Publicatiedatum
01-11-2011
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 11/2011
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1179-z