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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2/2015

01-02-2015 | Original Paper

Autonomic Dysregulation During Sensory Stimulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Auteurs: Roseann C. Schaaf, Teal W. Benevides, Benjamin E. Leiby, Jocelyn A. Sendecki

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 2/2015

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Abstract

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during sensory stimulation was measured in 59 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 6–9 in comparison to 30 typically developing controls. Multivariate comparisons revealed significant differences between groups in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic measure) vector of means across sensory stimuli (p = 0.02) and in change from domain to domain (p = 0.01). Sympathetic activity, measured by pre-ejection period, did not differ significantly between groups, although it was higher in ASD participants. Findings suggest that participants with ASD demonstrated a different pattern of parasympathetic activity during sensory stimulation. Findings are discussed in relation to the biological mechanisms of sensory processing in autism, insight into the autism phenotype, and the utility of ANS activity as an outcomes marker.

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Voetnoten
1
Behavioral sensory reactivity is defined based on the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnostic criteria description: “hyper-or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment” such as “apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movements” (APA 2013).
 
2
Eleven subjects (19 %) screened positively for anxiety, 12 screened positively for ADHD (20 %), 11 for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (19 %), 35 for Specific Phobia (59 %), and 1 for Major Depressive Disorder (2 %).
 
3
The QRS complex is the electrical signal representing ventricular depolarization on an electrocardiogram (ECG). The Q, R, and S waves occur successively, with the Q being the first negative deflection, followed by a positive inflection (R-wave), with the next negative deflection being the S wave (Das and Zipes 2012).
 
4
Children with ASD who refused electrodes, requested to stop testing, or skipped a protocol domain (ASD-Stopped, n = 18) were not significantly different than ASD-Completed (n = 40) in respect to mean age [F(1,57) = 1.07, p = 0.30] or cognitive level [F(1,48) = 0.15, p = 0.70] although the ASD-Stopped were more likely to have parent-reported dysfunction on the Underresponsivity/Seek Sensation domain z-score [ASD-Stopped M = −3.7, SD = 1.6, ASD-Completed M = −2.6, SD = 2.0, F(1,56) = 4.07, p = .05] and the Visual/Auditory Sensitivity domain z-score [ASD-Stopped M = −2.0, SD = 1.2, ASD-Completed M = −1.1, SD = 1.5, F(1,56) = 4.38, p = 0.04] of the SSP.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Autonomic Dysregulation During Sensory Stimulation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auteurs
Roseann C. Schaaf
Teal W. Benevides
Benjamin E. Leiby
Jocelyn A. Sendecki
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 2/2015
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1924-6