Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit low mental age (Low-MA; i.e., cognitive functioning below 12 months). We examined diagnosis, symptom severity, and development in children with ASD-low MA (n = 25), autistic disorder (n = 111), and PDD-NOS (n = 82) at ages two and four. We predicted that some ASD-low MA children would demonstrate just intellectual impairment and not autism symptoms on follow-up, with social deficits at age two attributable to global delays. Instead, most ASD-low MA children (96%) had an ASD at follow-up, compared to children initially diagnosed with autistic disorder (86.5%) or PDD-NOS (73.2%). They showed the least developmental progress and highest symptom severity. Results support diagnosing ASDs in children functioning below a 12-month level.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bagnato, S. J., & Neisworth, J. T. (1980). The intervention efficiency index: An approach to preschool program accountability. Exceptional Children, 46(4), 264–269. CrossRef
Bagnato, S. J., & Neisworth, J. T. (1985). Efficacy of interdisciplinary assessment and treatment for infants and preschoolers with congenital and acquired brain injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5, 107–128. CrossRef
Berry, L. N. (2009). Early treatments associated with optimal outcome in children with autism spectrum disorders. Storrs: University of Connecticut.
Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J. A., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 500–513. CrossRefPubMed
Chasson, G. S., Harris, G. E., & Neely, W. J. (2007). Cost comparison of early intensive behavioral intervention and special education for children with autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16(3), 401–413. CrossRef
Eikeseth, S., Klintwall, L., Jahr, E., & Karlsson, P. (2012). Outcome for children with autism receiving early and intensive behavioral intervention in mainstream preschool and kindergarten settings. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 829–835. CrossRef
Fombonne, E. (2003). The prevalence of autism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(1), 87–89. PubMed
Inada, N., Kamio, Y., & Koyama, T. (2010). Developmental chronology of preverbal social behaviors in infancy using the M-CHAT: Baseline for early detection of atypical social development. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(4), 605–611. CrossRef
Klin, A., Carter, A. S., & Sparrow, S. S. (1997). Psychological assessment of children with autism. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed.) (pp. 418–427). New York: Wiley.
Klintwall, L., Eldevik, S., & Eikeseth, S. (2015). Narrowing the gap: Effects of intervention on developmental trajectories in autism. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 19(1), 53–63. CrossRef
Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavore, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurm, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archive of General Psychiatry, 63, 694–701. CrossRef
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H. Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule–generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
Luyster, R., Guthrie, W., Gotham, K., Risi, S., DiLavore, P., & Lord, C. (2009). The autism diagnostic observation schedule–toddler module: preliminary findings using a modified version of the ADOS, (pp. 15–17). West Hartford: International Meeting for Autism Research.
Moore, V., & Goodson, S. (2003). How well does early diagnosis of autism stand the test of time? Follow-up study of children assessed for autism at age 2 and development of an early diagnostic service. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 7(1), 47–63.
Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service, Inc.
Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., Lord, C., & Faggioli, R. (2005). ADI-R: Autism diagnostic interview–revised: Manual. OS, Organizzazioni speciali. Torrance: Western Psychological Services
Shonkoff, J. P., Hauser-Cram, P., Krauss, M. W., & Upshur, C. C. (1992). Development of infants with disabilities and their families. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 57(6), 230. CrossRef
Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales-interview edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (2nd edn.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
Stone, W. L., McMahon, C. R., & Henderson, L. M. (2008). Use of the screening tool for autism in 2-Year-olds (STAT) for children under 24 months: An exploratory study. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12(5), 557–573. CrossRef
Sutera, S., Pandey, J., Esser, E. L., Rosenthal, M. A., Wilson, L. B., Barton, M., Green, J., Hodgson, S., Robins, D. L., Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2007). Predictors of optimal outcome in toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(1), 98–107. CrossRefPubMed
Wetherby, A. M., Brosnan-Maddox, S., Peace, V., et al. (2008). Validation of the infant-toddler checklist as a broadband screener for autism spectrum disorders from 9 to 24 months of age. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 12(5), 487–511. CrossRef
Wolery, M., & Dyk, L. (1985). The evaluation of two levels of a center based early intervention project. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 5(2), 66–77. CrossRef
- Autism Spectrum Disorders and Low Mental Age: Diagnostic Stability and Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood
Alexander J. Hinnebusch
Lauren E. Miller
Deborah A. Fein
- Springer US