The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder remains poorly understood. The present study addresses this knowledge gap by examining the relationship between functional brain connectivity and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores using publicly available data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) database (N = 107). This relationship was tested across all brain voxels, without a priori assumptions, using a novel statistical approach. ADOS scores were primarily associated with decreased connectivity to right temporoparietal junction, right anterior insula, and left fusiform gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected). Seven large-scale brain networks influenced these associations. Findings largely encompassed brain regions involved in processing socially relevant information, highlighting the importance of these processes in autism spectrum disorder.