Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
In order to evaluate the following potential mechanisms underlying atypical gaze following in autism, impaired reflexive gaze following, difficulty integrating gaze and affect, or reduced understanding of the referential significance of gaze, we administered three paradigms to young children with autism (N = 21) and chronological (N = 21) and nonverbal mental age (N = 21) matched controls. Children with autism exhibited impaired reflexive gaze following. The absence of evidence of integration of gaze and affect, regardless of diagnosis, indicates ineffective measurement of this construct. Reduced gaze following was apparent among children with autism during eye-tracking and in-person assessments. Word learning from gaze cues was better explained by developmental level than autism. Thus, gaze following may traverse an atypical, rather than just delayed, trajectory in autism.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Adamson, L. B., & Bakeman, R. (1985). Affect and attention: Infants observed with mothers and peers. Child Development, 56(3), 582–593. CrossRef
Akechi, H., Senju, A., Kikuchi, Y., Tojo, Y., Osanai, H., & Hasegawa, T. (2011). Do children with ASD use referential gaze to learn the name of an object? An eye-tracking study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1230–1242. CrossRef
Bishop, S. L., Guthrie, W., Coffing, M., & Lord, C. (2011). Convergent validity of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the differential ability scales in children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 16(5), 331–343. CrossRef
Butler, S. C., Caron, A. J., & Brooks, R. (2009). Infant understanding of the referential nature of looking. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1(4), 359–377. CrossRef
Butterworth, G., & Jarrett, N. (1991). What minds have in common is space: Spatial mechanisms serving joint visual attention in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 55–73. CrossRef
Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2002). The social responsiveness scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
D’Entremont, B., Hains, S. M. J., & Muir, D. W. (1997). A demonstration of gaze following in 3- to 6-month olds. Infant Behavior and Development, 20(4), 569–572. CrossRef
Dawson, G., Bernier, R., & Ring, R. H. (2012). Social attention: A possible early indicator of efficacy in autism clinical trials. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 4(1). doi: 10.1186/1866-1955-4-11.
Elliot, C. D. (1990). Differential ability scales. San Antonio, TX: The psychological corporation.
Farroni, T., Massaccesi, S., Pividori, D., & Johnson, M. H. (2004). Gaze following in newborns. Infancy, 5(1), 39–60. CrossRef
Gernsbacher, M. A., Stevenson, J. L., Khandakar, S., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2008). Why does joint attention look atypical in autism? Child Development Perspectives, 2(1), 38–45. CrossRef
Gliga, T., Elsabbagh, M., Hudry, K., Charman, T., & Johnson, M. H. (2012). Gaze following, gaze reading, and word learning in children at risk for autism. Child Development, 83(3), 926–938.
Goldberg, M. C., Mostow, A. J., Vecera, S. P., Gidley Larson, J. C., Mostofsky, S. H., Mahone, E. H., et al. (2008). Evidence for impairments in using static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1405–1413. PubMedCrossRef
Graham, R., Friesen, C. K., Fichtenholtz, H. M., & LaBar, K. S. (2010). Modulation of reflexive orienting to gaze direction by facial expressions. Visual Cognition, 18(3), 331–368. CrossRef
Heitanen, J. K., & Leppänen, J. M. (2003). Does facial expression affect attention orientation by gaze direction cues? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29(6), 1228–1243.
Hollich, G. J., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., Brand, R. J., Brown, E., Chung, H. L., et al. (2000). Breaking the language barrier: An emergentist coalition model for the origins of word learning. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 65(3), 1–135. CrossRef
Hood, B. M., Willen, J. D., & Driver, J. (1998). Adult’s eyes trigger shifts of visual attention in young infants. Psychological Science, 9(2), 131–134. CrossRef
Kuhn, G., Benson, V., Fletcher-Watson, S., Kovshoff, H., McCormick, C. A., Kirkby, J., et al. (2010). Eye movements affirm: Automatic overt gaze cueing effects for typical adults and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Experimental Brain Research, 201, 155–165. CrossRef
Leekam, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Perrett, D., Milders, M., & Brown, S. (1997). Eye-direction detection: A dissociation between geometric and joint attention skills in autism. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 77–95. CrossRef
Morgante, J. D., Zolfaghari, R., & Johnson, S. P. (2012). A critical test of temporal and spatial accuracy of the Tobii T60XL eye tracker. Infancy, 17, 9–32. CrossRef
Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1994). Joint attention, developmental level, and symptom presentation in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 389–401. CrossRef
Rombough, A., & Iarocci, G. (in press). Orienting in response to gaze and the social use of gaze among children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–13.
Rozga, A., Hutman, T., Young, G. S., Rogers, S. J., Ozonoff, S., Dapretto, M., et al. (2011). Behavioral profiles of affected and unaffected siblings of children with autism: Contribution of measures of mother–infant interaction and nonverbal communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 287–301. PubMedCrossRef
Scaife, M., & Bruner, J. S. (1975). The capacity for joint visual attention in the infant. Nature, 265–266.
Schilbach, L., Timmermans, B., Reddy, V., Costall, A., Bente, G., Schlicht, T., & Vogeley, K. (in press). Toward a second-person neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
Schopler, E., Van Bourgondien, M., Wellman, J., & Love, S. (2010). Childhood Autism Rating Scale—Second edition (CARS2): Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Seibert, J. M., Sliwin, L., & Hogan, A. E. (1986). Social and cognitive bases of early comprehension of object reference. Cognitive Development, 1(4), 391–404. CrossRef
Sigman, M., & Ruskin, E. (1999). References. Monographs of the society for research in child development, 64(1), 109–113. CrossRef
Swettenham, J., Condie, S., Campbell, R., Milne, E., & Coleman, M. (2003). Does the perception of moving eyes trigger reflexive visual orienting in autism? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 358, 325–334. CrossRef
Tipples, J. (2006). Fear and fearfulness potentiate automatic orienting to eye gaze. Cognition and Emotion, 26(2), 309–320.
Vlamings, P. H. J. M., Stauder, J. E. A., van Son, I. A. M., & Mottron, L. (2003). Atypical visual orienting to gaze- and arrow-cues in adults with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 267–277. CrossRef
Wilms, M., Schilbach, L., Pfeiffer, U., Bente, G., Fink, G. R., & Vogeley, K. (2010). It’s in your eyes- using gaze-contingent stimuli to create truly interactive paradigms for social cognitive and affective neuroscience. Scan, 5, 98–107. PubMed
Yu, C., & Smith, L. B. (2012). Embodied attention and word learning by toddlers. Cognition.
- Atypical Gaze Following in Autism: A Comparison of Three Potential Mechanisms
S. P. Johnson
- Springer US