Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The present study investigated whether faces capture attention regardless of attentional set. The presentation of a face as a distractor during a visual search has been shown to impair performance relative to when the face was absent, implying that faces automatically attract attention. If attentional control is contingent on the observer’s current goal, faces should not capture attention when they are irrelevant to the observer’s attentional set. Previous studies demonstrating face-induced attentional capture used faces that were relevant to the task. Thus, a task in which faces were completely irrelevant to the observer’s set was created. Participants identified a target letter among heterogeneously colored non-targets while ignoring a peripheral facial image that appeared as a brief distractor. No face-specific capture was observed when the target-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was long (Experiment 1). When the SOA was shortened, attentional capture by irrelevant faces was observed (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 extended this finding to all conditions, regardless of the attractiveness of faces. No such capture effect was found in Experiment 4 with inverted-face distractors. These results indicate that completely task-irrelevant faces break through top-down attentional set given a brief distractor-target SOA.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ansorge, U., & Heumann, M. (2003). Top-down contingencies in peripheral cuing: the role of color and location. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 937–948. PubMed
Bindemann, M., Burton, A. M., Hooge, I. T. C., Jenkins, R., & DeHaan, E. H. F. (2005). Faces retain attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 1048–1053. CrossRef
Brainard, D. H. (1997). The Psychophysics Toolbox. Spatial Vision, 10, 433–436.
Cerf, M., Harel, J., Einhäuser, W., & Koch, C. (2008). Predicting human gaze using low-level saliency combined with face detection. Advances in Neural Information Processing (NIPS), 2007(20), 241–248.
Chen, P., & Mordkoff, J. T. (2007). Contingent capture at a very short SOA: evidence against rapid disengagement. Visual Cognition, 15, 637–646. CrossRef
Christ, S. E., & Abrams, R. A. (2006). Abrupt onsets cannot be ignored. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 875–880. CrossRef
Eastwood, J. D., Smilek, D., & Merikle, P. M. (2001). Differential attentional guidance by unattended faces expressing positive and negative emotion. Perception & Psychologics, 63, 1004–1013. CrossRef
Einhäuser, W., Rutishauser, U., & Koch, C. (2008). Task-demands can immediately reverse the effects of sensory-driven saliency in complex visual stimuli. Journal of Vision, 8, 1–19.
Folk, C. L., Leber, A. B., & Egeth, H. E. (2008). Top-down control settings and the attentional blink: evidence for non-spatial contingent capture. Visual Cognition, 16, 616–642.
Folk, C. L., & Remington, R. (1998). Selectivity in distraction by irrelevant featural singletons: evidence for two forms of attentional capture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 847–858. PubMed
Folk, C. L., Remington, R. W., & Johnston, J. C. (1992). Involuntary covert orienting is contingent on attentional control settings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 1030–1044. PubMed
Ghorashi, S. M. S., Zuvic, S. M., Visser, T. A. W., & Di Lollo, V. (2003). Focal distraction: spatial shifts of attentional focus are not required for contingent capture. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 78–91.
Inukai, T., Kawahara, J.-I., & Kumada, T. (2010). Nonspatial interdimensional attentional capture. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72, 658–666.
Kahneman, D., Treisman, A., & Burkell, J. (1983). The cost of visual filtering. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9, 510–522. PubMed
Kawahara, J., Yanase, K., & Kitazaki, M. (2012). Attentional capture by the onset and offset of motion signals outside the spatial focus of attention. Journal of Vision, 12, 1–13. CrossRef
Leber, A. B., & Egeth, H. E. (2006). It’s under control: top-down search strategies can override attentional capture. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 132–138. CrossRef
Lien, M.-C., Ruthruff, E., Goodin, Z., & Remington, R. W. (2008). Contingent attentional capture by top-down control settings: converging evidence from event-related potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 509–530.
Li, F. F., VanRullen, R., Koch, C., & Perona, P. (2002). Rapid natural scene categorization in the near absence of attention. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 9596–9601.
Maner, J. K., Gailliot, M. T., & DeWall, C. N. (2007). Adaptive attentional attunement: evidence for mating-related perceptual bias. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 28–36. CrossRef
Pelli, D. G. (1997). The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies. Spatial Vision, 10, 437–442.
Shapiro, K. L., Arnell, K. M., & Raymond, J. E. (1997). The attentional blink. Trends in Cognitive Science, 1, 291–296.
Theeuwes, J., & Van der Stigchel, S. (2006). Faces capture attention: evidence from inhibition of return. Visual Cognition, 13, 657–665. CrossRef
Van der Stigchel, S., Belopolsky, A. V., Peters, J. C., Wijnen, J. G., Meeter, M., & Theeuwes, J. (2009). The limits of top-down control of visual attention. Acta Psychologica, 132, 201–212.
von Mühlenen, A., & Lleras, A. (2007). No-onset looming motion guides spatial attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33, 1297–1310.
Wyble, B., Folk, C., & Potter, M. C. (2013). Contingent attentional capture by conceptually relevant images. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 861–871.
Yin, R. K. (1969). Looking at upside-down faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 141–145. CrossRef
- Attentional capture by completely task-irrelevant faces
Jun I. Kawahara
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg