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13-08-2022

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Forgetfulness: Does Time-Related Decay Reflect Deficient Rehearsal?

Auteurs: Mark D. Rapport, Lauren M. Friedman, Cameron Pothoven, Catrina Calub

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 4/2022

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Abstract

The diminished ability to maintain verbal information in short-term memory—forgetfulness—mitigates the ability to follow instructions and acquisition of knowledge. Despite its acknowledged importance and involvement in multiple DSM-5 ADHD clinical symptoms, the construct remains under scrutinized in children with the disorder. The present study examined the extent to which children with ADHD (n = 15) were able to maintain multiple length word lists (2, 4, and 6 words) in phonological short-term memory (STM) for prolonged time intervals (12-s and 21-s) relative to typically developing (TD) children (n = 18). More crucially, it is the first to utilize a conventional suppression paradigm to determine whether deficient rehearsal contributes to diminished word recall by children with ADHD over time. Children with ADHD exhibited clear evidence of forgetting when tasked with remembering a greater number of words and maintaining the words over longer time intervals relative to TD children. Follow-up analyses, however, revealed that the imposition of articulatory suppression (repeating an irrelevant syllable throughout recall intervals) diminished the recall performance of children in both groups to a similar degree relative to their performance under the recall only (non-suppression) conditions. Collectively, findings indicate that inadequate use of overt/covert rehearsal to refresh/maintain verbal memoranda in phonological STM is an unlikely explanation for the higher rates of forgetting in children with ADHD. Consideration of other sources that may contribute to higher rates of forgetfulness in ADHD, such as reduced attention control and/or higher susceptibility to internal interference, warrant attention in future investigations.
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1
Other types of rehearsal—viz., attentional refreshing and elaborative rehearsal—can also be used to forestall memory decay; however, we focus on articulatory rehearsal because it represents a key process inherent to the PH STM component of Baddeley’s WM model, and its predominant use by pediatric age children.
 
2
In future studies, requiring children to initiate a noninterfering motor response whenever they engage in irrelevant thoughts during the task might address this conceptual question.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Forgetfulness: Does Time-Related Decay Reflect Deficient Rehearsal?
Auteurs
Mark D. Rapport
Lauren M. Friedman
Cameron Pothoven
Catrina Calub
Publicatiedatum
13-08-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 4/2022
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-022-09979-3

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