Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Drinking water is important for health and there is an agreement that drinking water facilitates certain cognitive processes. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of drinking water on cognition is unknown. While attention performance is improved by even a very small drink, memory performance seems to require larger drinks for performance enhancement. This suggests that attention could be affected earlier in the drinking process than memory. We aimed to elucidate further the mechanism involved by investigating the stage during the drinking process influencing performance on cognitive tasks. To this end, we compared mouth rinsing and mouth drying. Mouth rinsing was expected to result in improved attention performance and would suggest that the mechanism responsible is located in the mouth and occurs early in the drinking process, before swallowing. Eighty-seven adults participated in either a treatment (mouth rinsing or mouth drying) or control (no intervention) condition. They were assessed at baseline and 20 min later after intervention on measures of visual attention, short-term memory, subjective thirst and mood. Our results showed that mouth rinsing improved visual attention, but not short-term memory, mood or subjective thirst. Mouth drying did not affect performance. Our results support the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie the effect of drinking water on different cognitive processes. They suggest that merely sipping water, as opposed to having a large drink, can improve attention.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Barker, M., Benefer, M. D., Russell, J. M., Lepicard, E. M., Constant, F., Hawili, N., & Friedlander, G. (2012). Hydration deficit after breakfast intake among British schoolchildren. Experimental Biology, 26, 10–11.
Benelam, B., & Wyness, L. (2010). Hydration and health: a review. Nutrition Bulletin, 35(1), 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2009.01795.x. CrossRef
Benton, D., Braun, H., Cobo, J. C., Edmonds, C. J., Elmadfa, I., El-Sharkawy, A., et al. (2015). Executive summary and conclusions from the European Hydration Institute Expert Conference on human hydration, health, and performance. Nutrition Reviews, 73, 148–150. https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuv056. CrossRef
Benton, D., & Burgess, N. (2009). The effect of the consumption of water on the memory and attention of children. Appetite, 53(1), 143–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.05.006. CrossRef
Booth, P., Taylor, B., & Edmonds, C. J. (2012). Water supplementation improves visual attention and fine motor skills in schoolchildren. Education and Health, 30(3), 75–79.
Brunstrom, J. (2002). Effects of mouth dryness on drinking behavior and beverage acceptability. Physiology and Behavior, 76(3), 423–429. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12117579. Accessed 28 Dec 2015
Brunstrom, J. M., Macrae, A. W., & Roberts, B. (1997). Mouth-state dependent changes in the judged pleasantness of water at different temperatures. Physiology and Behavior, 61(5), 667–669. CrossRef
Chambers, E. S., Bridge, M. W., & Jones, D. (2009). Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. The Journal of physiology, 587(Pt 8), 1779–1794. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2008.164285. CrossRef
Cohen, S. (1983). After effects of stress on human performance during a heat acclimatization regimen. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 54, 709–713.
D’Anci, K. E. D., Constant, F., & Rosenberg, I. H. (2006). Hydration and cognitive function in children. Nutrition in Clinical Care, 64(10), 457–464. https://doi.org/10.1301/nr.2006.oct.457.
Dawkins, L., Shahzad, F. Z., Ahmed, S. S., & Edmonds, C. J. (2011). Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood. Appetite, 57(3), 597–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2011.07.011. CrossRef
Edmonds, C. J., Booth, P., Carey, K., Stafford, A., Walker, A., & Gardner, M. R. (2019). Teachers’ attitudes to children drinking water in the classroom and strategies for increasing consumption : a pilot study a b c b. In Poster presented at the British Feeding and Drinking Group conference Swansea. https://doi.org/10.13140/rg.2.2.13883.67361
Edmonds, C. J., & Burford, D. (2009). Should children drink more water? The effects of drinking water on cognition in children. Appetite, 52(3), 776–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.02.010. CrossRef
Edmonds, Caroline J., Crombie, R., Ballieux, H., Gardner, M. R., & Dawkins, L. (2013a). Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults. Appetite, 60(1), 148–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.016. CrossRef
Edmonds, Caroline J., Crombie, R., & Gardner, M. R. (2013b). Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(July), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00363.
Edmonds, C. J., Crosbie, L., Fatima, F., Hussain, M., Jacob, N., & Gardner, M. (2017). Dose-response effects of water supplementation on cognitive performance and mood in children and adults. Appetite, 108, 464–470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.011. CrossRef
Edmonds, C. J., Harte, N., & Gardner, M. R. (2018). How does drinking water affect attention and memory? The effect of mouth rinsing and mouth drying on children’s performance. Physiology and Behavior, 194, 233–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.06.004. CrossRef
Edmonds, Caroline J., & Jeffes, B. (2009). Does having a drink help you think? 6–7-Year-old children show improvements in cognitive performance from baseline to test after having a drink of water. Appetite, 53(3), 469–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.10.002. CrossRef
Fadda, R., Rapinett, G., Grathwohl, D., Parisi, M., Fanari, R., Maria, C., & Schmitt, J. (2012). Effects of drinking supplementary water at school on cognitive performance in children. Appetite, 59(3), 730–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.07.005. CrossRef
Fillmore, M., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1992). Expected effect of caffeine on motor performance predicts the type of response to placebo. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 106, 209–214. CrossRef
Francesconi, R., Hubbard, R. W., Szlyk, P. C., Schnakenberg, D., Carlson, D., Leva, N., et al. (1987). Urinary and hematologic indexes of hypohydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62(3), 1271–1276. CrossRef
Gandy, J. (2017). Fluid—food fact sheet. www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts. Accessed 30 April 2019
Grandjean, A. C., & Campbell, S. M. (2004). Hydration: Fluids for life. Washington, DC: ILSI.
Greendale, G. A., Kritz-Silverstein, A., Seeman, T., & Barrett-Connor, E. (2000). Higher basal cortisol predicts verbal memory loss in postmenopausal women: Rancho Bernardo Study: Brief reports. Journal of the American Geriatrics Sociey, 48, 1655–1658. CrossRef
Hart, S. G. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. Advances in Psychology, 52, 139–183. CrossRef
Health and Safety Executive. (2013). Workplace health, safety and welfare : Workplace (health, safety and welfare) regulations 1992. http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/priced/l24.pdf. Accessed 2 Apr 2019
Health and Safety Executive. (2019). Case 187—employer refuses to allow employees bottles of water on retail floor due to health and safety. http://www.hse.gov.uk/myth/myth-busting/2013/case187-bottled-water.htm. Accessed 29 April 2019
Jeukendrup, A., Rollo, I., & Carter, J. (2013). Carbohydrate mouth rinse: performance effects and mechanisms. Sports Science, 26(118), 1–8. https://secure.footprint.net/gatorade/prd/gssiweb/pdf/118_CarbohydrateMouthRinse-Jeukendrup_SSE.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2017
Kaushik, A., Mullee, M. A., Bryant, T. N., & Hill, C. M. (2007). A study of the association between children’ s access to drinking water in primary schools and their fluid intake : Can water be ‘cool’ in school ? Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(4), 409–415. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00721.x.
Kenney, E. L., Long, M. W., Cradock, A. L., & Gortmaker, S. L. (2015). Prevalence of inadequate hydration among US children and disparities by gender and race/ethnicity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. American Journal of Public Health, 105(8), e113–e118. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302572. CrossRef
Kirschbaum, C., Wolk, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483. CrossRef
Lotshaw, S. C., Bradley, J. R., & Brooks, L. R. (1996). Illustrating caffeine’s pharmacological and expectancy effects using a balanced placebo design. Journal of Drug Education, 26, 13–24. CrossRef
May, M., & Jordan, J. (2011). The osmopressor response to water drinking. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 300, R40–R46. CrossRef
Neave, N., Scholey, A. B., Emmett, J. R., Moss, M., Kennedy, D. O., & Wesnes, K. A. (2001). Water ingestion improves subjective alertness, but has no effect on cognitive performance in dehydrated healthy young volunteers. Appetite, 37, 255–256. https://doi.org/10.1006/appe.2001.0429. CrossRef
Perry, C. S., Rapinett, G., Glaser, N. S., & Ghetti, S. (2015). Hydration status moderates the effects of drinking water on children’s cognitive performance. Appetite, 95, 520–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.08.006. CrossRef
Ritz, P., Vol, S., Berrut, G., Tack, I., Arnaud, M. J., & Tichet, J. (2008). Influence of gender and body composition on hydration and body water spaces. Clinical Nutrition, 27(5), 740–746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2008.07.010. CrossRef
Rollo, I., Homewood, G., Williams, C., Carter, J., & Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L. (2015). The influence of carbohydrate mouth rinse on self-selected intermittent running performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(6), 550–558. CrossRef
Rolls, B. J., & Rolls, E. T. (1982). Thirst. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sinclair, J., Bottoms, L., Flynn, C., Bradley, E., Alexander, G., McCullagh, S., et al. (2013). The effect of different durations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance. Physiology and Nutrition, 14(3), 259–264.
The Education (Nutritional Standards and Requirements for School Food) (England) Regulations. (2007). Statutory instrument. London: Nutritional Standards and Requirements for School Food.
United States Department of Agriculture. (2016). Resources for making potable water available in schools and child care facilities. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture.
Young, H. A., & Benton, D. (2016). The use of moderated mediated analysis to study the influence of hypo-hydration on working memory. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 33(July), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.320.
Zimmerman, C. A., Lin, Y.-C., Leib, D. E., Huey, E. L., Daly, G. E., Chen, Y., & Knight, Z. A. (2016). Thirst neurons anticipate the homeostatic consequences of eating and drinking. Nature, 537(7622), 680–684. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b07425.Molecular. CrossRef
- At what stage in the drinking process does drinking water affect attention and memory? Effects of mouth rinsing and mouth drying in adults
Caroline J. Edmonds
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
An International Journal of Perception, Attention, Memory, and Action
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772