Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1/2021

12-07-2019 | Original Article

At what stage in the drinking process does drinking water affect attention and memory? Effects of mouth rinsing and mouth drying in adults

Auteurs: Caroline J. Edmonds, Jamila Skeete, Eva Klamerus, Mark Gardner

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Drinking water is important for health and there is an agreement that drinking water facilitates certain cognitive processes. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of drinking water on cognition is unknown. While attention performance is improved by even a very small drink, memory performance seems to require larger drinks for performance enhancement. This suggests that attention could be affected earlier in the drinking process than memory. We aimed to elucidate further the mechanism involved by investigating the stage during the drinking process influencing performance on cognitive tasks. To this end, we compared mouth rinsing and mouth drying. Mouth rinsing was expected to result in improved attention performance and would suggest that the mechanism responsible is located in the mouth and occurs early in the drinking process, before swallowing. Eighty-seven adults participated in either a treatment (mouth rinsing or mouth drying) or control (no intervention) condition. They were assessed at baseline and 20 min later after intervention on measures of visual attention, short-term memory, subjective thirst and mood. Our results showed that mouth rinsing improved visual attention, but not short-term memory, mood or subjective thirst. Mouth drying did not affect performance. Our results support the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie the effect of drinking water on different cognitive processes. They suggest that merely sipping water, as opposed to having a large drink, can improve attention.
Literatuur
go back to reference Barker, M., Benefer, M. D., Russell, J. M., Lepicard, E. M., Constant, F., Hawili, N., & Friedlander, G. (2012). Hydration deficit after breakfast intake among British schoolchildren. Experimental Biology, 26, 10–11. Barker, M., Benefer, M. D., Russell, J. M., Lepicard, E. M., Constant, F., Hawili, N., & Friedlander, G. (2012). Hydration deficit after breakfast intake among British schoolchildren. Experimental Biology, 26, 10–11.
go back to reference Booth, P., Taylor, B., & Edmonds, C. J. (2012). Water supplementation improves visual attention and fine motor skills in schoolchildren. Education and Health, 30(3), 75–79. Booth, P., Taylor, B., & Edmonds, C. J. (2012). Water supplementation improves visual attention and fine motor skills in schoolchildren. Education and Health, 30(3), 75–79.
go back to reference Brunstrom, J. M., Macrae, A. W., & Roberts, B. (1997). Mouth-state dependent changes in the judged pleasantness of water at different temperatures. Physiology and Behavior, 61(5), 667–669. CrossRef Brunstrom, J. M., Macrae, A. W., & Roberts, B. (1997). Mouth-state dependent changes in the judged pleasantness of water at different temperatures. Physiology and Behavior, 61(5), 667–669. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, S. (1983). After effects of stress on human performance during a heat acclimatization regimen. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 54, 709–713. Cohen, S. (1983). After effects of stress on human performance during a heat acclimatization regimen. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 54, 709–713.
go back to reference Fillmore, M., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1992). Expected effect of caffeine on motor performance predicts the type of response to placebo. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 106, 209–214. CrossRef Fillmore, M., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1992). Expected effect of caffeine on motor performance predicts the type of response to placebo. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 106, 209–214. CrossRef
go back to reference Francesconi, R., Hubbard, R. W., Szlyk, P. C., Schnakenberg, D., Carlson, D., Leva, N., et al. (1987). Urinary and hematologic indexes of hypohydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62(3), 1271–1276. CrossRef Francesconi, R., Hubbard, R. W., Szlyk, P. C., Schnakenberg, D., Carlson, D., Leva, N., et al. (1987). Urinary and hematologic indexes of hypohydration. Journal of Applied Physiology, 62(3), 1271–1276. CrossRef
go back to reference Grandjean, A. C., & Campbell, S. M. (2004). Hydration: Fluids for life. Washington, DC: ILSI. Grandjean, A. C., & Campbell, S. M. (2004). Hydration: Fluids for life. Washington, DC: ILSI.
go back to reference Greendale, G. A., Kritz-Silverstein, A., Seeman, T., & Barrett-Connor, E. (2000). Higher basal cortisol predicts verbal memory loss in postmenopausal women: Rancho Bernardo Study: Brief reports. Journal of the American Geriatrics Sociey, 48, 1655–1658. CrossRef Greendale, G. A., Kritz-Silverstein, A., Seeman, T., & Barrett-Connor, E. (2000). Higher basal cortisol predicts verbal memory loss in postmenopausal women: Rancho Bernardo Study: Brief reports. Journal of the American Geriatrics Sociey, 48, 1655–1658. CrossRef
go back to reference Hart, S. G. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. Advances in Psychology, 52, 139–183. Hart, S. G. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. Advances in Psychology, 52, 139–183.
go back to reference Kirschbaum, C., Wolk, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483. CrossRef Kirschbaum, C., Wolk, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483. CrossRef
go back to reference Lotshaw, S. C., Bradley, J. R., & Brooks, L. R. (1996). Illustrating caffeine’s pharmacological and expectancy effects using a balanced placebo design. Journal of Drug Education, 26, 13–24. CrossRef Lotshaw, S. C., Bradley, J. R., & Brooks, L. R. (1996). Illustrating caffeine’s pharmacological and expectancy effects using a balanced placebo design. Journal of Drug Education, 26, 13–24. CrossRef
go back to reference May, M., & Jordan, J. (2011). The osmopressor response to water drinking. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 300, R40–R46. CrossRef May, M., & Jordan, J. (2011). The osmopressor response to water drinking. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 300, R40–R46. CrossRef
go back to reference Rollo, I., Homewood, G., Williams, C., Carter, J., & Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L. (2015). The influence of carbohydrate mouth rinse on self-selected intermittent running performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(6), 550–558. CrossRef Rollo, I., Homewood, G., Williams, C., Carter, J., & Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L. (2015). The influence of carbohydrate mouth rinse on self-selected intermittent running performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25(6), 550–558. CrossRef
go back to reference Rolls, B. J., & Rolls, E. T. (1982). Thirst. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rolls, B. J., & Rolls, E. T. (1982). Thirst. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Sinclair, J., Bottoms, L., Flynn, C., Bradley, E., Alexander, G., McCullagh, S., et al. (2013). The effect of different durations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance. Physiology and Nutrition, 14(3), 259–264. Sinclair, J., Bottoms, L., Flynn, C., Bradley, E., Alexander, G., McCullagh, S., et al. (2013). The effect of different durations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance. Physiology and Nutrition, 14(3), 259–264.
go back to reference The Education (Nutritional Standards and Requirements for School Food) (England) Regulations. (2007). Statutory instrument. London: Nutritional Standards and Requirements for School Food. The Education (Nutritional Standards and Requirements for School Food) (England) Regulations. (2007). Statutory instrument. London: Nutritional Standards and Requirements for School Food.
go back to reference United States Department of Agriculture. (2016). Resources for making potable water available in schools and child care facilities. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture. (2016). Resources for making potable water available in schools and child care facilities. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture.
Metagegevens
Titel
At what stage in the drinking process does drinking water affect attention and memory? Effects of mouth rinsing and mouth drying in adults
Auteurs
Caroline J. Edmonds
Jamila Skeete
Eva Klamerus
Mark Gardner
Publicatiedatum
12-07-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1/2021
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01229-8