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10-07-2019 | Uitgave 11/2019

Quality of Life Research 11/2019

Association between Type D personality and outcomes in patients with non-ischemic heart failure

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 11/2019
Johan S. Bundgaard, Lauge Østergaard, Gunnar Gislason, Jens J. Thune, Jens C. Nielsen, Jens Haarbo, Lars Videbæk, Line L. Olesen, Anna M. Thøgersen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Susanne S. Pedersen, Lars Køber, Ulrik M. Mogensen
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-019-02241-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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The “distressed” (Type D) personality trait has been reported to be over-represented in patients with heart failure (HF) compared to the background population and may provide prognostic information for mortality. We examined the association between Type D personality and outcomes in the DANISH trial (The Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Patients with Non-ischemic Systolic Heart Failure on Mortality).


The DANISH trial included a total of 1116 patients with non-ischemic HF on guideline-recommended therapy. Type D personality was assessed with the Type D Scale (DS14) at baseline and investigated through follow-up accordingly. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.


Type D personality assessment was completed by 873 (78%) patients at baseline and Type D personality was found in 120 (14%) patients. The median follow-up was 67 months (interquartile range [IQR] 48–83). Among patients with versus without Type D personality, 22% versus 19% died from all-cause yielding similar incidence rates of 4.62 (95% CI 3.14–6.87) versus 3.95 (95% CI 3.37–4.66) per 100 person-years. The adjusted risk of all-cause mortality was not significantly different in patients with versus without Type D personality with an adjusted HR of 1.31 (95% CI 0.84–2.03, p = 0.23) with similar results for cardiovascular death (HR 1.46 (95% CI 0.88–2.44, p = 0.15).


Type D personality was not significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular death in patients with non-ischemic HF.

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