Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 1/2019

21-08-2018 | Original Article

Assessing Trauma-Related Appraisals by Means of a Scenario-Based Approach

Auteurs: Marcella L. Woud, Jan C. Cwik, Rianne A. de Kleine, Simon E. Blackwell, Felix Würtz, Jürgen Margraf

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 1/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Dysfunctional appraisals play a key role in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated a novel method to assess dysfunctional appraisals via an online study, in which participants (N = 93) were asked to specify a distressing, negative life event and were then presented with ambiguous, open-ended trauma-related scenarios. Participants were asked to generate an ending by writing down their first, spontaneous continuation for each scenario. Results showed that a greater number of dysfunctional appraisals generated on the scenario task was associated with higher scores on the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory (PTCI) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). In regression analyses, scores on the scenario task were predictive of current posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, this relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for PTCI scores. These results contribute to the literature on dysfunctional appraisals in PTSD, supporting the validity of the scenario task and indicating its potential utility in complementing the PTCI as a measure of dysfunctional appraisal.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
The scenarios’ endings were also coded on two valence aspects, i.e., negativity (four-point Likert scale: − 3 = very negative until 0 = neutral) and positivity (four-point Likert scale: + 3 = very positive until 0 = neutral) and for complexity (1 = yes, 0 = no). However, for the purpose of the present paper we only included the first two ratings categories (i.e., whether the ending represented an appraisal and whether it was a dysfunctional appraisal).
 
2
As the calculation of G requires a 2 × 2 contingency table, the small number of endings coded as ‘missing' or ‘not codable' were ignored in this calculation.
 
3
When repeating the analyses with the consensus score of the first coding round the results remain the same.
 
4
Correlational analyses based on Pearson correlations revealed similar results.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory-II manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory-II manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Cieslak, R., Benight, C. C., & Lehman, V. C. (2008). Coping self-efficacy mediates the effects of negative cognitions on posttraumatic distress. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(7), 788–798. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cieslak, R., Benight, C. C., & Lehman, V. C. (2008). Coping self-efficacy mediates the effects of negative cognitions on posttraumatic distress. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(7), 788–798. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference De Houwer, J. (2006). What are implicit measures and why are we using them. In R. W. Wiers & A. W. Stacy (Eds.), The handbook of implicit cognition and addiction (pp. 11–28). Thousand Oaks: SAGE. CrossRef De Houwer, J. (2006). What are implicit measures and why are we using them. In R. W. Wiers & A. W. Stacy (Eds.), The handbook of implicit cognition and addiction (pp. 11–28). Thousand Oaks: SAGE. CrossRef
go back to reference Ehlers, A. (1999). Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen. Göttingen: Hogrefe. Ehlers, A. (1999). Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
go back to reference Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford Press. Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Franklin, M. E., Huppert, J., Langner, R., Leiberg, S., & Foa, E. B. (2005). Interpretation bias: A comparison of treated social phobics, untreated social phobics, and controls. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(3), 289–300. CrossRef Franklin, M. E., Huppert, J., Langner, R., Leiberg, S., & Foa, E. B. (2005). Interpretation bias: A comparison of treated social phobics, untreated social phobics, and controls. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(3), 289–300. CrossRef
go back to reference Hautzinger, M., Keller, F., & Kühner, C. (2006). Beck depressionsinventar II. In Deutsche Bearbeitung und Handbuch zum BDI II. Frankfurt: Harcourt Test Services. Hautzinger, M., Keller, F., & Kühner, C. (2006). Beck depressionsinventar II. In Deutsche Bearbeitung und Handbuch zum BDI II. Frankfurt: Harcourt Test Services.
go back to reference Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1986). Selbstwirksamkeit. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Skalen zur Befindlichkeit und Persönlichkeit (pp. 15–28). Berlin: Institut für Psychologie, Freie Universität Berlin. Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1986). Selbstwirksamkeit. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Skalen zur Befindlichkeit und Persönlichkeit (pp. 15–28). Berlin: Institut für Psychologie, Freie Universität Berlin.
go back to reference Laux, L., Glanzmann, P., Schaffner, P., & Spielberger, C. D. (1981). Das State-Trait-Angstinventar (STAI). Theoretische Grundlagen und Handanweisung. Weinheim: Beltz Test GmbH. Laux, L., Glanzmann, P., Schaffner, P., & Spielberger, C. D. (1981). Das State-Trait-Angstinventar (STAI). Theoretische Grundlagen und Handanweisung. Weinheim: Beltz Test GmbH.
go back to reference Levkovich, I., Cohen, M., Pollack, S., Drumea, K., & Fried, G. (2015). Cancer-related fatigue and depression in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy: Different associations with optimism and stress appraisals. Palliative & Supportive care, 13(5), 1141–1151. CrossRef Levkovich, I., Cohen, M., Pollack, S., Drumea, K., & Fried, G. (2015). Cancer-related fatigue and depression in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy: Different associations with optimism and stress appraisals. Palliative & Supportive care, 13(5), 1141–1151. CrossRef
go back to reference Roth, J., Steffens, M. C., Morina, N., & Stangier, U. (2012). Changed for the worse: Subjective change in implicit and explicit self-esteem in individuals with current, past, and no posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81(1), 64e66. CrossRef Roth, J., Steffens, M. C., Morina, N., & Stangier, U. (2012). Changed for the worse: Subjective change in implicit and explicit self-esteem in individuals with current, past, and no posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 81(1), 64e66. CrossRef
go back to reference Schumacher, J., Leppert, K., Gunzelmann, T., Strauss, B., & Brähler, E. (2005). Die Resilienzskala-Ein Fragebogen zur Erfassung der psychis-chen Widerstandsfähigkeit als Personmerkmal. [The resilience scale: A questionnaire for the assessment of psychosocial stress-resistance as a personality factor]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 53(1), 16–39. Schumacher, J., Leppert, K., Gunzelmann, T., Strauss, B., & Brähler, E. (2005). Die Resilienzskala-Ein Fragebogen zur Erfassung der psychis-chen Widerstandsfähigkeit als Personmerkmal. [The resilience scale: A questionnaire for the assessment of psychosocial stress-resistance as a personality factor]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 53(1), 16–39.
go back to reference Sexton, M. B., Davis, M. T., Bennett, D. C., Morris, D. H., & Rauch, S. A. (2018). A psychometric evaluation of the posttraumatic cognitions inventory with veterans seeking treatment following military trauma exposure. Journal of Affective Disorders, 226, 232–238. PubMedCrossRef Sexton, M. B., Davis, M. T., Bennett, D. C., Morris, D. H., & Rauch, S. A. (2018). A psychometric evaluation of the posttraumatic cognitions inventory with veterans seeking treatment following military trauma exposure. Journal of Affective Disorders, 226, 232–238. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1970). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1970). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
go back to reference Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2000). Social phobia and interpretation of social events. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(3), 273–283. PubMedCrossRef Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2000). Social phobia and interpretation of social events. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(3), 273–283. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178. PubMed Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178. PubMed
go back to reference Woud, M. L., Zlomuzica, A., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., Shkreli, L., Blackwell, S. E., … Ehring, T. (2018). Effects of appraisal training on responses to a distressing autobiographical event. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 56, 26–34. PubMedCrossRef Woud, M. L., Zlomuzica, A., Cwik, J. C., Margraf, J., Shkreli, L., Blackwell, S. E., … Ehring, T. (2018). Effects of appraisal training on responses to a distressing autobiographical event. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 56, 26–34. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zang, Y., Gallagher, T., McLean, C. P., Tannahill, H. S., Yarvis, J. S., & Foa, E. B. (2017). The impact of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience on PTSD in treatment-seeking military personnel with PTSD: The role of posttraumatic cognitions. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 86, 18–25. PubMedCrossRef Zang, Y., Gallagher, T., McLean, C. P., Tannahill, H. S., Yarvis, J. S., & Foa, E. B. (2017). The impact of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience on PTSD in treatment-seeking military personnel with PTSD: The role of posttraumatic cognitions. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 86, 18–25. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Assessing Trauma-Related Appraisals by Means of a Scenario-Based Approach
Auteurs
Marcella L. Woud
Jan C. Cwik
Rianne A. de Kleine
Simon E. Blackwell
Felix Würtz
Jürgen Margraf
Publicatiedatum
21-08-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-018-9956-z

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2019

Cognitive Therapy and Research 1/2019 Naar de uitgave