Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Fear in children is associated with the tendency to avoid situations related to the fear. In this study, the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) was evaluated as a test of automatic behavioral avoidance tendencies in children. A sample of 195 children aged between 9 and 12 years completed an AAT, a Behavioral Assessment Task (BAT), and two spider fear questionnaires. The results indicate that all children showed an automatic avoidance tendency in response to spider pictures, but not pictures of butterflies or neutral pictures. Girls who reported more fear of spiders on the self-reports and behaved more anxiously during the BAT also showed a greater avoidance tendency in the AAT. These relationships were absent in boys.
Bijttebier, P., Vasey, M. W., & Braet, C. (2003). The information-processing paradigm: A valuable framework for clinical child and adolescent psychology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,32, 2–9. PubMed
Chen, M., & Bargh, J. A. (1999). Consequences of automatic evaluation: Immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,25, 215–224. CrossRef
Huijding, J., & de Jong, P. J. (2006). Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders. Behaviour Research and Therapy,44, 161–176. PubMed
Huijding, J., Field, A. P., De Houwer, J., Vandenbosch, K., Rinck, M., & Van Oeveren, M. (2009a). A behavioral route to dysfunctional representations: The effects of training approach or avoidance tendencies towards novel animals in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy,47, 471–477. PubMedCrossRef
Huijding, J., Wiers, R. W., & Field, A. P. (2009b). The assessment of fear-related automatic associations in children and adolescents. In J. Hadwin & A. P. Field (Eds.), Information processing biases and anxiety: A developmental perspective. Chichester: Wiley.
Kendall, P. C., & Ronan, K. R. (1990). Assessment for children’s anxieties, fears, and phobias: Cognitive-behavioral models and methods. In C. R. Reynolds & K. W. Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (pp. 223–244). New York: Guilford Press.
Klein, A. M., Becker, E. S., & Rinck, M. (2009a). Direct and indirect measures of spider fear predict unique variance in children’s fear- related behavior. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Klein, A. M., Rinck, M., and Becker, E. S. (2009b). The Spider Anxiety and Disgust Screening for Children (SADS- C): Reliability and validity of a short measure of spider anxiety in children. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation, and action. In P. J. Lang, R. F. Simons, & M. F. Balaban (Eds.), Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97–135). Hillsdale, NY: Erlbaum.
Lange, W.-G., Salemink, E., Windey, I., Keijsers, G. P. J., Krans, J., Becker, E. S., et al. (2010). Does modified interpretation bias influence automatic avoidance behavior? Applied Cognitive Psychology,24, 326–337. CrossRef
Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review,84, 231–259. CrossRef
Ollendick, T. H., King, N. J., & Muris, P. (2002). Fears and phobias in children: Phenomenology, epidemiology, and aetiology. Child and Adolescent Mental Health,7, 98–106. CrossRef
Rinck, M., & Becker, E. S. (2007). Approach and avoidance in fear of spiders. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,38, 105–120. CrossRef
Rinck, M., Hu, L., van Noorden, T. H. J., Verhoeven, J. E., Woud, M. L., and Becker, E. S. (2010). The effects of task- relevant and task- irrelevant stimulus valence on measures of approach– avoidance behavior. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Strauss, C. C., & Last, C. G. (1993). Social and simple phobias in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,7, 141–152. CrossRef
Wiers, R. W., Rinck, M., Dictus, M., & van den Wildenberg, E. (2009). Relatively strong automatic appetitive action tendencies in male carriers of the OPRM1 G-Allele. Genes, Brain and Behavior,8, 101–106. CrossRef
Williams, J. M. G., Watts, F. N., MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1997). Cognitive psychology and emotional disorders. Chichester: Wiley.
Woud, M. L., Becker, E. S., & Rinck, M. (2008). Implicit evaluation bias induced by approach and avoidance. Cognition and Emotion,22, 1187–1197. CrossRef
- Approach and Avoidance Tendencies in Spider Fearful Children: The Approach-Avoidance Task
Anke M. Klein
Eni S. Becker
- Springer US