Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
According to the ideomotor principle, behavior is controlled via a retrieval of the sensory consequences that will follow from the respective movement (“action-effects”). These consequences include not only what will happen, but also when something will happen. In fact, recollecting the temporal duration between response and effect takes time and prolongs the initiation of the response. We investigated the associative structure of action-effect learning with delayed effects and asked whether participants acquire integrated action-time-effect episodes that comprise a compound of all three elements or whether they acquire separate traces that connect actions to the time until an effect occurs and actions to the effects that follow them. In three experiments, results showed that participants retrieve temporal intervals that follow from their actions even when the identity of the effect could not be learned. Furthermore, retrieval of temporal intervals in isolation was not inferior to retrieval of temporal intervals that were consistently followed by predictable action-effects. More specifically, when tested under extinction, retrieval of action-time and action-identity associations seems to compete against each other, similar to overshadowing effects reported for stimulus–response conditioning. Together, these results suggest that people anticipate when the consequences of their action will occur, independently from what the consequences will be.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Church, R. M., & Deluty, M. Z. (1977). Bisection of temporal intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 3(3), 216–228. PubMed
Coull, J. T., & Nobre, A. C. (1998). Where and when to pay attention: the neural systems for directing attention to spatial locations and to time intervals as revealed by both PET and fMRI. The Journal of Neuroscience, 18(18), 7426–7435. PubMed
Dickinson, A. (2001). The 28th Bartlett memorial lecture causal learning: an associative analysis. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section B, 54(1), 3–25. CrossRef
Dignath, D., Pfister, R., Eder, A. B., Kiesel, A., & Kunde, W. (2014). Representing the hyphen in action–effect associations: automatic acquisition and bidirectional retrieval of action–effect intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(6), 1701–1712. CrossRefPubMed
Drew, M. R., Zupan, B., Cooke, A., Couvillon, P. A., & Balsam, P. D. (2005). Temporal control of conditioned responding in goldfish. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 31(1), 31–39. PubMed
Elsner, B., & Hommel, B. (2001). Effect anticipation and action control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(1), 229–240. PubMed
Herbart, J. F. (1825). Psychologie als Wissenschaft neu gegründet auf Erfahrung, Metaphysik und Mathematik. Königsberg: August Wilhelm Unzer.
Hommel, B. (1993). Inverting the Simon effect by intention. Psychological Research, 55(4), 270–279. CrossRef
Hommel, B. (2013). Ideomotor action control: on the perceptual grounding of voluntary actions and agents. In W. Prinz, M. Beisert, & A. Herwig (Eds.), Action science: Foundations of an emerging discipline (pp. 113–136). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Honig, W. K. (1981). Working memory and the temporal map. In N. E. Spear & R. R. Miller (Eds.), Information processing in animals: Memory mechanisms (pp. 167–197). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
James, W. (1890/2011). The principles of psychology, vols. I, II. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Janczyk, M., Durst, M., & Ulrich, R. (2016). Action selection by temporally distal action-goals. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (in press).
Janczyk, M., Yamaguchi, M., Proctor, R. W., & Pfister, R. (2015). Response-effect compatibility with complex actions: the case of wheel rotations. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 77(3), 930–940. CrossRef
Jarosz, A. F., & Wiley, J. (2014). What are the odds? A practical guide to computing and reporting Bayes Factors. The Journal of Problem Solving, 7, 2–9. CrossRef
Kamin, L. J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention and conditioning. In B. Campbell & R. Church (Eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Kunde, W. (2001). Response-effect compatibility in manual choice reaction tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(2), 387–394. PubMed
Kunde, W., Pfister, R., & Janczyk, M. (2012). The locus of tool-transformation costs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(3), 703. PubMed
Los, S. A., & Van Den Heuvel, C. E. (2001). Intentional and unintentional contributions to nonspecific preparation during reaction time foreperiods. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(2), 370–386. PubMed
Love, J., Selker, R., Verhagen, J., Marsman, M., Gronau, Q. F., Jamil, T., Smira, M., Epskamp, S., Wild, A., Morey, R., Rouder, J. & Wagenmakers, E. J. (2015). JASP (Version 0.7.5.6) [Computer software].
Matzel, L. D., Held, F. P., & Miller, R. R. (1988). Information and expression of simultaneous and backward associations: implications for contiguity theory. Learning and Motivation, 19(4), 317–344. CrossRef
Miller, R. R., & Barnet, R. C. (1993). The role of time in elementary associations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2(4), 106–111. CrossRef
Nobre, A. C. (2010). How can temporal expectations bias perception and action? In A. C. Nobre & J. T. Coull (Eds.), Attention and time (pp. 371–392). Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Paelecke, M., & Kunde, W. (2007). Action-effect codes in and before the central bottleneck: evidence from the psychological refractory period paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(3), 627–644. PubMed
Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory (pp. 64–99). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
- Anticipation of delayed action-effects: learning when an effect occurs, without knowing what this effect will be
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg