Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
An abundance of evidence indicates that action selection is guided, at least in certain contexts, by anticipation of action outcomes. In one particularly clear demonstration of this principle, Bechara and colleagues, studying a gambling task, observed phasic skin conductance responses just prior to actions associated with a relatively high risk of monetary loss (Bechara et al. in J Neurosci 19:5473–5481, 1999; Bechara et al. in Science 275:1293–1295, 1997; Bechara et al. in Cereb Cortex 6:215–225, 1996). In the present work, we tested for the same effect in a paradigm where choices resulted not in differential monetary outcomes, but in differential requirements for subsequent mental effort. In two experiments, we observed an anticipatory skin conductance response prior to actions resulting in a high level of cognitive demand. This finding indicates that requirements for effortful cognitive control are anticipated during action selection. We argue, based on convergent evidence, that such anticipation may not only trigger preparation; it may also play a direct role in effort-based decision-making.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Allport, G. W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. New York: Addison Wesley.
Andreassi, J. L. (2000). Psychophysiology: Human behavior and physiological response. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Balle, M. (2002). La loi du moindre effort mental: Les representations mentales. Sciences Humaines,128, 36–39.
Baroody, A. J., & Ginsburg, H. P. (1986). The relationship between initial meaningful and mechanical knowledge of arithmetic. In J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case of mathematics (pp. 75–112). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Damasio, A. R., & Lee, G. P. (1999). Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience,19, 5473–5481. PubMed
Botvinick, M. (2007). Conflict monitoring and decision making: Reconciling two perspectives on anterior cingulate function. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience,7, 356–366. CrossRef
Botvinick, M., & Rosen, Z. (2007). Is mental effort aversive? Some behavioral and psychophysiological evidence. Paper presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting.
Botvinick, M., Rosen, Z., & McGuire, J. C. (2008). Action selection based on anticipated cognitive demand: A test of “the law of least mental effort” (submitted).
Brown, J. W., & Braver, T. S. (2007). Risk prediction and aversion by anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience,7, 266–277. CrossRef
Camerer, C. F., & Hogarth, R. M. (1999). The effects of financial incentives in experiments: A review and capital-labor-production framework. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty,19, 7–42. CrossRef
Carter, C. S., & Van Veen, V. (2007). Anterior cingulate cortex and conflict detection: An update of theory and data. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience,7, 367–379. CrossRef
Christenfeld, N. (1995). Choices from identical options. Psychological Science,6, 50–55. CrossRef
Damasio, A. R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences,351, 1413–1420. CrossRef
Gendolla, G. H., & Richter, M. (2005). Ego involvement and effort: Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and performance effects. Psychphysiology,42, 595–603. CrossRef
Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century.
Kim, H., Shimojo, S., & O’Doherty, J. (2006). Is avoiding an aversive outcome rewarding? Neural substrates of avoidance learning in the human brain. PLOS Biology,4, 1453–1461.
Loftus, G. R., & Masson, M. E. J. (1994). Using confidence intervals in within-subject designs. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,1, 476–490.
Mathias, C. J., Josephs, O., O’Doherty, J., Zanini, S., Dewar, B. K., Cipolatti, L., et al. (2003). Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: Converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence. Brain,125, 2139–2152.
McGuire, W. J. (1969). The nature of attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 136–314). Reading: Addision-Wesley.
Nagai, Y., Critchley, H. D., Featherstone, E., Trimble, M. R., & Dolan, R. J. (2004). Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaries with sympathetic skin conductance level: Physiological account of a “default mode” of brain function. NeuroImage, 22.
Pecchinenda, A., & Smith, C. A. (1996). The affective significance of skin conductance activity during a difficult problem-solving task. Cognition and Emotion,10, 481–503. CrossRef
Rosch, E. (1999). Principles of categorization. In E. Margolis & S. Laurence (Eds.), Concepts: Core readings. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Wright, R. A. (1996). Brehm’s theory of motivation asa model of effort and cardiovascular response. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The Psychology of Action (pp. 424–453). New York: Guilford Press.
Wright, R. A., & Brehm, J. W. (1989). Energization and goal attractiveness. In L. Pervin (Ed.), Goal concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 169–210). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wright, R. A., & Kirby, L. D. (2001). Effort determination of cardiovascular response: An integrative analysis with applications in social psychology. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 255–307). San Diego: Academic Press, Inc.
Zipf, G. K. (1949). Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley Press.
- Anticipation of cognitive demand during decision-making
Matthew M. Botvinick
Zev B. Rosen