Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander hoofdstuk

2019 | OriginalPaper | Hoofdstuk

4. Anatomy of the pelvis, pelvic organs and reproductive system

Auteurs : PhD Marco C. DeRuiter, PhD Gerrit-Jan Kleinrensink, MD, PhD Bernadette S. de Bakker

Gepubliceerd in: Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Uitgeverij: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum

share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Summary

Knowledge of the functional anatomy of the pelvic organs with the surrounding tissues is a key element of safe clinical practice. The internal pelvic organs are firmly attached to each other and the encircling bony pelvic girdle and musculofascial pelvic floor by endopelvic fascia structures. This close relationship combining local anchoring and stretching properties of the mesenchymal tissues with the contractility of the pelvic floor is essential for good daily functioning of the male and female pelvic organs. In this chapter, the localization, composition of the organ tissues and changes during life are discussed in relation to their functions in urinary and faecal continence, vaginal delivery, fertilization, locomotion and how they prevent the formation of, for example, cystocele, enterocele, rectocele and vaginal prolapse. Attention is also paid to the development of the reproductive organs, which is essential to understand the wide range of variations and congenital malformations, but also to understand the complex anatomy of the pelvis with its vascularization and innervation patterns.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Woordenlijst
Anorectal canal
The rectum and anus form the last part of the large intestine. The rectal and anal part are actually separate units.
The rectum is the part of the large intestine caudal to the arcuate line of the pelvis. The rectum measures about 10–15 cm (without the anal canal: about 4 cm.) 1/3 of the rectum is completely intraperitoneal, 1/3 partly intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal and 1/3 completely extra (sub)peritoneal.
The rectum forms an angle of 90–115 degrees with the anal canal, which widens to 130 ̊ during defecation, caused by contraction of the puborectal sling.
The anus/ anal canal (as surgically defined) forms the last part of the large intestine and consists of three parts (from caudal → cranial or outward → inward): (1) the anus (1 cm) often covered with brownish skin; (2) the intermediate zone (anal pecten/anatomical anal canal and (3) the transitional zone from the mucocutaneous line to the insertion of the puborectal muscle)
Denonvilliers’ fascia
A strong and densely connective tissue (fascia or septum) between the vagina and the rectum to prevent cele formation. An important surgical marking point in rectal and vaginal surgery
Gubernaculum
The gubernaculum ligament develops between the ovary/testis and labio/scrotal swelling and pierces through the abdominal wall at the future inguinal canal and is essential for the descent of the testis. The female counterpart in the adult is the round ligament of the uterus
Endopelvic fascia
The fascial structures in between the muscular lateral pelvic walls (parietal fascia) and the outer borders of the internal organs (visceral fascia). Superiorly bordered by the peritoneum and inferiorly by the pelvic floor
Inguinal canal
An oblique, 4 cm long canal in which the testes descend into the scrotum. In the female the round ligament of the uterus (ligamentum teres) is found in this canal formed by the much smaller processus vaginalis. In the female the processus vaginalis obliterates earlier than in the male, preventing the ovaries from descending. From the inside out, the canal is formed by the deep inguinal ring (annulus inguinalis profundus), then runs a course through the 3 layers of the abdominal wall (transverse, internal oblique and external oblique abdominal muscles) and ends in the superficial inguinal ring (annulus inguinalis superficialis)
Levator ani muscle
Originates bilaterally from the internal fasciae covering the obturator internus muscles (the tendinous arch of the levator ani) on a line between the pubic bones and ischial spines. It comprises three individual muscles: puborectal, pubococcygeal and the iliococcygeal muscle
Pelvic diaphragm
It consists of two coccygeal and two levator ani muscles with covering fascial layers. The left and right coccygeal muscles run from the ischial spines and sacrospinous ligaments towards the coccyx and inferior part of the sacrum
Pelvic floor
The inferior fibromuscular border of the lesser pelvis which is often divided into an anterior urogenital diaphragm and a posterior pelvic diaphragm
Pelvic inlet
The ring-like border between the greater and lesser pelvis formed by the sacrum with its the sacral promontory, the rims on both insides of the iliac bones and the ventral pubic symphysis
Pelvic outlet
The inferior border of the lesser or true pelvis bordered bilaterally by the ischiopubic rami, the ischial tuberosities, the sacrotuberous ligaments, the sacrum and the coccyx
Perineum
The diamond-shaped area between the coccyx, the two ischial tuberosities and pubic symphysis including the pelvic floor and associated structures. The perineum can be divided into an anterior triangular urogenital part and a posterior triangular anal part
Pudendal nerve
The most important somatic nerve (S2–S4) carrying motor and sensory information both to and from to the perineum and part of the pelvic floor
Retropubic space (or cavum Retzii)
Loose areolar tissue devoid of large nerves and vessels in between the pubic bone and the urinary bladder. It allows expansion of the urinary bladder. This space can also be used as a surgical plane to the bladder neck, prostate with minimal damage to the supplying tissues
Tendinous arch of the levator ani muscle
Tendinous attachment of the levator ani muscle to the obturator internal muscle
Tendinous arch (or white line) of the pelvic fascia
A thick band of condensed tissue within the parietal pelvic fascia on the lateral pelvic wall can be recognized that runs from the pubis symphysis to the ischial spine. All the internal organs are suspended to this arch
Visceral innervation of the pelvis
The efferent and afferent visceral fibres that control the function of the erectile organs, glands, urethra, vagina, anorectum and the internal anal and ureteral sphincters (composed of smooth muscle cells)
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Acien P, Sanchez del Campo F, Mayol MJ, Acien M. The female gubernaculum: role in the embryology and development of the genital tract and in the possible genesis of malformations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159(2):426–32. CrossRef Acien P, Sanchez del Campo F, Mayol MJ, Acien M. The female gubernaculum: role in the embryology and development of the genital tract and in the possible genesis of malformations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159(2):426–32. CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Bakker BS de, Jong KH de, Hagoort J, Bree K de, Besselink CT, Kanter FE de, et al. An interactive three-dimensional digital atlas and quantitative database of human development. Science 2016;354(6315). Bakker BS de, Jong KH de, Hagoort J, Bree K de, Besselink CT, Kanter FE de, et al. An interactive three-dimensional digital atlas and quantitative database of human development. Science 2016;354(6315).
3.
go back to reference Feldkamp ML, Carey JC, Byrne JLB, Krikov S, Botto LD. Etiology and clinical presentation of birth defects: population based study. BMJ 2017;357:j2249. Feldkamp ML, Carey JC, Byrne JLB, Krikov S, Botto LD. Etiology and clinical presentation of birth defects: population based study. BMJ 2017;357:j2249.
4.
go back to reference Herrera AM, Cohn MJ. Embryonic origin and compartmental organization of the external genitalia. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6896. CrossRef Herrera AM, Cohn MJ. Embryonic origin and compartmental organization of the external genitalia. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6896. CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Michos O. Kidney development: from ureteric bud formation to branching morphogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2009;19(5):484–90. CrossRef Michos O. Kidney development: from ureteric bud formation to branching morphogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2009;19(5):484–90. CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Miller A, Hong MK, Hutson JM. The broad ligament: a review of its anatomy and development in different species and hormonal environments. Clin Anat. 2004;17(3):244–51. CrossRef Miller A, Hong MK, Hutson JM. The broad ligament: a review of its anatomy and development in different species and hormonal environments. Clin Anat. 2004;17(3):244–51. CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Pradidarcheep W, Wallner C, Dabhoiwala NF, Lamers WH. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2011;202:117–48. CrossRef Pradidarcheep W, Wallner C, Dabhoiwala NF, Lamers WH. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2011;202:117–48. CrossRef
8.
go back to reference Stevenson RH, J. Human malformations and related anomalies. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. Stevenson RH, J. Human malformations and related anomalies. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.
9.
go back to reference Vodstrcil LA, Tare M, Novak J, Dragomir N, Ramirez RJ, Wlodek ME, Conrad KP, Parry LJ. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow. FASEB J. 2012;26(10):4035–44. CrossRef Vodstrcil LA, Tare M, Novak J, Dragomir N, Ramirez RJ, Wlodek ME, Conrad KP, Parry LJ. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow. FASEB J. 2012;26(10):4035–44. CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Wallner C, Dabhoiwala NF, DeRuiter MC, Lamers WH. The anatomical components of urinary continence. Eur Urol. 2009;55(4):932–43. CrossRef Wallner C, Dabhoiwala NF, DeRuiter MC, Lamers WH. The anatomical components of urinary continence. Eur Urol. 2009;55(4):932–43. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Anatomy of the pelvis, pelvic organs and reproductive system
Auteurs
PhD Marco C. DeRuiter
PhD Gerrit-Jan Kleinrensink
MD, PhD Bernadette S. de Bakker
Copyright
2019
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-368-2131-5_4