Skip to main content
Top

27-06-2024 | Original Paper

An Exploratory Study: Racial Socialization Practices and Dilemmas of Caregivers Nurturing Young BIPOC Children

Auteur: Flóra Faragó

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study on the racial socialization practices and dilemmas of caregivers of 0–8 year-old BIPOC children utilized an open-ended online survey, with a mixed-methods approach to data analysis. The study included 173 caregivers (i.e., 59% white; 41% BIPOC; 94.2% female) in the U.S. who held a variety of roles (e.g., 33.5% parents/relatives; 28.3% early childhood educators; 12.1% mental health/health professionals). Caregivers were prompted with a message about joy and resilience in BIPOC children. Analysis of open-ended data revealed practices such as the use of books, adult education, talking, preparation for bias or acknowledgment of racism, stereotyping, privilege, anti-bias/anti-racist education, art, music, dance, home language, and miscellaneous topics. Caregivers highlighted the following: (a) Nurturing a positive racial identity and pride in children’s own heritage; (b) Nurturing love and knowledge about racial diversity; (c) Preparation for bias; and, (d) Racial socialization network: Adult-to-adult practices. Regarding racial socialization dilemmas, caregivers highlighted challenges with nurturing a positive racial identity/pride in children’s heritage; nurturing love and knowledge about racial diversity; preparation for bias; and, adult education. Dilemmas were reported about nurturing self-love in a racist world, whiteness, others’ biases, relationships, representation, multiracial families, own biases, age appropriateness, and colorism. Chi-square analyses confirmed that there were no statistically significant differences between white and BIPOC, and familial and non-familial, caregivers’ racial socialization practices and dilemmas. Descriptive results revealed some differences in racial socialization dilemmas by race and role of caregivers.
Literatuur
go back to reference Bañales, J., Aldana, A., Richards-Schuster, K., & Merritt, A. (2021). Something you can see, hear, and feel: A descriptive, exploratory mixed-methods analysis of youths’ articulations about racism. Journal of Adolescent Research, 07435584211062117. https://doi.org/10.1177/07435584211062117. Bañales, J., Aldana, A., Richards-Schuster, K., & Merritt, A. (2021). Something you can see, hear, and feel: A descriptive, exploratory mixed-methods analysis of youths’ articulations about racism. Journal of Adolescent Research, 07435584211062117. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​0743558421106211​7.
go back to reference Barbarin, O., & Jean-Baptiste, E. (2013). The relation of dialogic, control, and racial socialization practices to early academic and social competence: Effects of gender, ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83(2-3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajop.12025.CrossRefPubMed Barbarin, O., & Jean-Baptiste, E. (2013). The relation of dialogic, control, and racial socialization practices to early academic and social competence: Effects of gender, ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83(2-3), 207–217. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​ajop.​12025.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Contreras, M. M., Osborne, K. R., Walsdorf, A. A., Anderson, L. A., Caughy, M. O. B., & Owen, M. T. (2021). Holding both truths: Early dynamics of ethnic‐racial socialization and children’s behavior adjustment in African American and Latinx families. Journal of Social Issues, 77(4), 987–1013. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12496.CrossRef Contreras, M. M., Osborne, K. R., Walsdorf, A. A., Anderson, L. A., Caughy, M. O. B., & Owen, M. T. (2021). Holding both truths: Early dynamics of ethnic‐racial socialization and children’s behavior adjustment in African American and Latinx families. Journal of Social Issues, 77(4), 987–1013. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​josi.​12496.CrossRef
go back to reference Farago, F., Davidson, K. L., & Byrd, C. (2019). Ethnic-racial socialization in early childhood: The implications of color-consciousness and colorblindness for prejudice development. In H. E. Fitzgerald, D. J. Johnson, D. B. Quin, F. A.Villarruel, & J. Norder (Eds.), Handbook of children and prejudice: Integrating research, practice, and policy (pp. 131–145). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12228-7_7. Farago, F., Davidson, K. L., & Byrd, C. (2019). Ethnic-racial socialization in early childhood: The implications of color-consciousness and colorblindness for prejudice development. In H. E. Fitzgerald, D. J. Johnson, D. B. Quin, F. A.Villarruel, & J. Norder (Eds.), Handbook of children and prejudice: Integrating research, practice, and policy (pp. 131–145). Springer. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-12228-7_​7.
go back to reference Farago, F., Sanders, K., & Gaias, L. (2015). Addressing race and racism in early childhood: Challenges and opportunities. In J. Sutterby (Ed.), Discussions on sensitive issues. In J. Sutterby (Series Ed.), Advances in early education and day care. (Vol. 19, pp. 29–66). Emerlad. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0270-402120150000019004. Farago, F., Sanders, K., & Gaias, L. (2015). Addressing race and racism in early childhood: Challenges and opportunities. In J. Sutterby (Ed.), Discussions on sensitive issues. In J. Sutterby (Series Ed.), Advances in early education and day care. (Vol. 19, pp. 29–66). Emerlad. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1108/​S0270-4021201500000190​04.
go back to reference Gaias, L. M., Gal-Szabo, D. E., Shivers, E. M., & Kiche, S. (2022). From laissez-faire to anti-discrimination: How are race/ethnicity, culture, and bias integrated into multiple domains of practice in early childhood education? Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 36, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2021.1951403. Gaias, L. M., Gal-Szabo, D. E., Shivers, E. M., & Kiche, S. (2022). From laissez-faire to anti-discrimination: How are race/ethnicity, culture, and bias integrated into multiple domains of practice in early childhood education? Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 36, 1–24. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​02568543.​2021.​1951403.
go back to reference Halevi Hochwald, I., Green, G., Sela, Y., Radomyslsky, Z., Nissanholtz‐Gannot, R., & Hochwald, O. (2023). Converting qualitative data into quantitative values using a matched mixed‐methods design: A new methodological approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 79(11), 4398–4410. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15649.CrossRefPubMed Halevi Hochwald, I., Green, G., Sela, Y., Radomyslsky, Z., Nissanholtz‐Gannot, R., & Hochwald, O. (2023). Converting qualitative data into quantitative values using a matched mixed‐methods design: A new methodological approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 79(11), 4398–4410. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​jan.​15649.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Heberle, A. E., Hoch, N., Wagner, A. C., Frost, R. L., & Manley, M. H. (2021). “She is such a sponge and I want to get it right”: Tensions, failures, and hope in White parents’ aspirations to enact anti-racist parenting with their young White children. Research in Human Development, 18(1-2), 75–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2021.1926869.CrossRef Heberle, A. E., Hoch, N., Wagner, A. C., Frost, R. L., & Manley, M. H. (2021). “She is such a sponge and I want to get it right”: Tensions, failures, and hope in White parents’ aspirations to enact anti-racist parenting with their young White children. Research in Human Development, 18(1-2), 75–104. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​15427609.​2021.​1926869.CrossRef
go back to reference Holmes, K. A., Garcia, J., & Adair, J. K. (2017). Who said we’re too young to talk about race? First graders and their teacher investigate racial justice through counter-stories. In N. Yelland & D. F. Bentley (Eds.), Found in translation: Connecting reconceptualist thinking with early childhood education practices (pp. 129–147). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315165042. Holmes, K. A., Garcia, J., & Adair, J. K. (2017). Who said we’re too young to talk about race? First graders and their teacher investigate racial justice through counter-stories. In N. Yelland & D. F. Bentley (Eds.), Found in translation: Connecting reconceptualist thinking with early childhood education practices (pp. 129–147). Routledge. https://​doi.​org/​10.​4324/​9781315165042.
go back to reference Hughes, D., Harding, J., Niwa, E. Y., Del Toro, J., Way, N. (2017). Racial socialization and racial discrimination as intra‐ and intergroup processes. In Rutland, A., Nesdale, D., & Brown, C. S. (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of group processes in children and adolescents (pp. 241–268). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118773123.ch12. Hughes, D., Harding, J., Niwa, E. Y., Del Toro, J., Way, N. (2017). Racial socialization and racial discrimination as intra‐ and intergroup processes. In Rutland, A., Nesdale, D., & Brown, C. S. (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of group processes in children and adolescents (pp. 241–268). Wiley-Blackwell. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​9781118773123.​ch12.
go back to reference Husband, T. (2016). Ignorance is not bliss: Moving beyond colorblind perspectives and practices in education. In T. Husband (Ed.), But I don’t see color: The perils, practices, and possibilities of antiracist education (pp. 3–19). Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-585-2_1. Husband, T. (2016). Ignorance is not bliss: Moving beyond colorblind perspectives and practices in education. In T. Husband (Ed.), But I don’t see color: The perils, practices, and possibilities of antiracist education (pp. 3–19). Sense Publishers. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-94-6300-585-2_​1.
go back to reference LoCasale-Crouch, J., DeCoster, J., Cabell, S., Hamre, B., Downer, J., & Pianta, R. (2012). Variation in teachers’ instructional interactions within two interventions: Associations with intervention responsiveness and teacher/classroom characteristics. Presented at SREE Spring Conference (Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness). LoCasale-Crouch, J., DeCoster, J., Cabell, S., Hamre, B., Downer, J., & Pianta, R. (2012). Variation in teachers’ instructional interactions within two interventions: Associations with intervention responsiveness and teacher/classroom characteristics. Presented at SREE Spring Conference (Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness).
Metagegevens
Titel
An Exploratory Study: Racial Socialization Practices and Dilemmas of Caregivers Nurturing Young BIPOC Children
Auteur
Flóra Faragó
Publicatiedatum
27-06-2024
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-024-02874-3