Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1757-1146-7-17) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
PNH designed the study and managed the microbiological aspects of the research. He also contributed to the statistical analysis, data processing and drafting of the manuscript. CSD assisted in the design of the study and managed the podiatry aspects of the research. He also contributed to the data processing and drafting of the manuscript. SR was responsible for the microbiology and molecular aspects of the study. He also contributed to the data processing and initial drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Infection control is a key issue in podiatry as it is in all forms of clinical practice. Airborne contamination may be particularly important in podiatry due to the generation of particulates during treatment. Consequently, technologies that prevent contamination in podiatry settings may have a useful role. The aims of this investigation were twofold, firstly to determine the ability of a UV cabinet to protect instruments from airborne contamination and secondly to determine its ability to remove microbes from contaminated surfaces and instruments.
A UV instrument cabinet was installed in a University podiatry suite. Impact samplers and standard microbiological techniques were used to determine the nature and extent of microbial airborne contamination. Sterile filters were used to determine the ability of the UV cabinet to protect exposed surfaces. Artificially contaminated instruments were used to determine the ability of the cabinet to remove microbial contamination.
Airborne bacterial contamination was dominated by Gram positive cocci including Staphylococcus aureus. Airborne fungal levels were much lower than those observed for bacteria. The UV cabinet significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the observed levels of airborne contamination. When challenged with contaminated instruments the cabinet was able to reduce microbial levels by between 60% to 100% with more complex instruments e.g. clippers, remaining contaminated.
Bacterial airborne contamination is a potential infection risk in podiatry settings due to the presence of S. aureus. The use of a UV instrument cabinet can reduce the risk of contamination by airborne microbes. The UV cabinet tested was unable to decontaminate instruments and as such could pose an infection risk if misused.
Authors’ original file for figure 113047_2013_603_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 213047_2013_603_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 313047_2013_603_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 413047_2013_603_MOESM4_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 513047_2013_603_MOESM5_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 613047_2013_603_MOESM6_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 713047_2013_603_MOESM7_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 813047_2013_603_MOESM8_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 913047_2013_603_MOESM9_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 1013047_2013_603_MOESM10_ESM.pdf
EHPU: Chiropody and podiatry infection control guidelines. 2007, UK: Essex Health Protection Unit, HPA
ICP: Minimum standards of clinical practice for members. 2010, UK: Institute of Chiropodists and Podiatrists
Rees SM, Harper B, Glenn H, Fullerton CJ: Levels of bacterial contamination affecting podiatric equipment. Foot. 2000, 10: 139-143. 10.1054/foot.2000.0603. CrossRef
Wise ME, Marquez P, Sharapov U, Hathaway S, Katz K, Tolan S, Beaton A, Drobeniuc J, Khudyakov Y, Hu DJ, Perz J, Thompson ND, Bancroft E: Outbreak of acute hepatitis B virus infections associated with podiatric care at a psychiatric long-term care facility. Am J Infect Control. 2012, 40: 16-21. 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.04.331. CrossRefPubMed
Eames I, Tang JW, Li Y, Wilson P: Airborne transmission of disease in hospitals. J Royal Soc Interface. 2009, 6: S697-S702. 10.1098/rsif.2009.0407.focus. CrossRef
Donaldson CL, Carline T, Brown DM, Gilmour PS, Donaldson K: Toenail dust particles: a potential inhalation hazard to podiatrists . Ann Occup Hyg. 2002, 46: 365-368. 10.1093/annhyg/46.suppl_1.365. CrossRef
DoH: Towards cleaner hospitals and lower rates of infection. 2004, London, UK: Department of Health
NAO: Reducing Healthcare Associated Infections in Hospitals in England. 2009, London, UK: National Audit Office
NICE: Prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections in primary and community care. 2012, London, UK: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
Bristow I, Mak M: Fungal foot infection: the hidden enemy . Wounds UK. 2009, 5: 72-78.
DoH: CFPP 01-01 Management and decontamination of surgical instruments: Part C–Steam sterilization. 2013, London, UK: Department of Health
Bintsis T, Litopoulou-Tzanetaki E, Robinson RK: Existing and potential applications of ultraviolet light in the food industry–a critical review. J Sci Food Agric. 2000, 80: 637-645. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000501)80:6<637::AID-JSFA603>3.0.CO;2-1. CrossRef
Reeda NG: The history of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for air disinfection. Public Health Rep. 2010, 125: 15-27.
BSI: BSEN 1276:1997: Chemical Disinfectants-Quantitative Suspension Test for the Evaluation of Bactericidal Activity of Chemical Disinfectants and Antiseptics used in Food, Industrial, Domestic and Institutional Areas-Test Method and Requirements (phase 2, Step 1). 1997, London, UK: British Standards Institute
BSI: BS EN 1650:2008: Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics- Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of fungicidal or yeasticidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in food, industrial, domestic and institutional areas: Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1). 2008, London, UK: British Standards Institute
White S, Topping A, Humphreys P, Rout S, Williamson H: The cross-contamination potential of mobile telephones. J Res Nurs. 2012, 17: 582-595. 10.1177/1744987112458670. CrossRef
Napoli C, Tafuri S, Montenegro L, Cassano M, Notarnicola A, Lattarulo S, Montagna MT, Moretti B: Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department. J Hosp Infect. 2012, 80: 128-132. 10.1016/j.jhin.2011.10.011. CrossRefPubMed
DoH: Health Technical Memorandum 03-01: Specialised ventilation for healthcare premises. 2007, London, UK: Department of Health
Old HV: Airborne transmission of bacteria in a Chiropody clinic–the role of curtains around treatment cubicles. Brit J Podiatr. 1998, 53: 5-
Gorny RL, Dutkiewicz J: Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in Central and Eastern European countries. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002, 9: 17-23. PubMed
Gorny RL, Dutkiewicz J, Krysinska-Traczyk E: Size distribution of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in indoor air. Ann Agric Environ Med. 1999, 6: 105-113. PubMed
- An evaluation of the infection control potential of a UV clinical podiatry unit
Paul N Humphreys
Chris S Davies
- BioMed Central