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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 6/2023

31-01-2023

Aging and Pubertal Development Differentially Predict Symptoms of ADHD, Depression, and Impairment in Children and Adolescents: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study

Auteurs: Ashley G. Eng, Jenny M. Phan, Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff, Tory A. Eisenlohr-Moul, Patrick K. Goh, Michelle M. Martel

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 6/2023

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Abstract

Activational effects of the reproductive neuroendocrine system may explain why some youths with ADHD are at greater risk for exacerbated ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity) during adolescence. For youths diagnosed with ADHD, first signs of ADHD symptoms become noticeable by multiple reporters (e.g., teachers, parents) when children enter schools, typically around kindergarten. The current study examined possible sex differences in ADHD, impairment, and comorbidity due to pubertal effects, as the role of pubertal development in ADHD is understudied. ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impairment, and pubertal stage were assessed annually by multiple reporters in a well-characterized community sample of 849 children over-recruited for ADHD over eight years. Ages ranged from 7 to 13 years (38.16% female) at wave 1. Multilevel models indicated that males had higher levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention than females, but that females had higher levels of impairment than males. Inattention symptoms did not show marked maturation changes. Hyperactivity and impulsivity declined as youth aged and impairment increased as youth aged. Lastly, depressive symptoms largely increased as youth aged and were higher amongst youth at later pubertal stages. Put together, aging and pubertal development are associated with improved ADHD symptoms but not for youth with high impairment. Findings from this study contributes to understanding the role that aging, pubertal status, and pubertal development plays in ADHD, impairment, and comorbidity in children and adolescents.
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1
For simplicity, we designate “males” as youth who were assigned male at birth and are presumed to have testicular maturation throughout puberty, whereas we designate “females” as youth who were assigned female at birth and are presumed to have ovarian maturation throughout puberty. Although, there are many instances in which this presumption is erroneous (e.g., intersex youth; trans* youth; youth with delayed or precocious puberty).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Aging and Pubertal Development Differentially Predict Symptoms of ADHD, Depression, and Impairment in Children and Adolescents: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study
Auteurs
Ashley G. Eng
Jenny M. Phan
Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff
Tory A. Eisenlohr-Moul
Patrick K. Goh
Michelle M. Martel
Publicatiedatum
31-01-2023
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 6/2023
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-023-01030-7

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