Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
The current study investigated the age of diagnosis (AoD) of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Nepal by using de-identified data on 246 children with a diagnosis of ASD registered at AutismCare Nepal Society from 2010 to 2015. The mean AoD in children was 58 months (range 14–187 months). Majority of children were male (76%), lived in the Kathmandu valley (75%), and were from upper caste groups (62%). The mean diagnostic age of ASD in Nepal is much later than the age at which a reliable diagnosis is possible, indicating the need to reduce the gap between the age at which it is possible to diagnose ASD, and the average age at which ASD is currently diagnosed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th text revised edn.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th edn.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Antezana, L., Scarpa, A., Valdespino, A., Albright, J., & Richey, J. A. (2017). Rural trends in diagnosis and services for autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 590. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00590.
AutismCare Nepal Society. (2018). Annual report (2016–2017). Retrieved from http://autismnepal.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Annual-Report-of-ACNS.pdf.
Baio, J., Wiggins, L., Christensen, D. L., Maenner, M. J., Daniels, J., Warren, Z., … Dowling, N. F. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 67(6), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1.
Barbaro, J., & Dissanayake, C. (2013). Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the social attention and communication study. Autism, 17(1), 64–86. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361312442597.
Barbaro, J., & Halder, S. (2016). Early identification of autism spectrum disorder: Current challenges and future global directions. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 3(1), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-016-0078-6.
Bello-Mojeed, M. A., Bakare, M. O., & Munir, K. (2014). Identification of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Africa: Need for shifting research and public health focus. In V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, & C. R. Martin (Eds.), Comprehensive Guide to Autism (pp. 2437–2453). New York: Springer.
Bent, C. A., Dissanayake, C., & Barbaro, J. (2015). Mapping the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in children aged under 7 years in Australia, 2010–2012. The Medical Journal of Australia, 202(6), 317–320.
Bhandari, G. P., Angdembe, M. R., Dhimal, M., Neupane, S., & Bhusal, C. (2014). State of non-communicable diseases in Nepal. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-23.
Bhandari, P., Shrestha, S. S., & Ghimire, D. J. (2007). Sociocultural and Geographical Disparities in Child Immunization in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 22(1), 43–64.
Bickel, J., Bridgemohan, C., Sideridis, G., & Huntington, N. (2015). Child and family characteristics associated with age of diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder in a tertiary care setting. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 36(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0000000000000117.
Bravo Oro, A., Vázquez Briseño, J., Cuello García, C. A., Calderón Sepúlveda, R. F., Villalobos, H., A. M., & Esmer Sánchez, C. (2012). Early manifestations of autism spectrum disorders. Experience of 393 cases in a child neurological centre. Neurología (English Edition), 27(7), 414–420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrleng.2011.09.002.
Brett, D., Warnell, F., McConachie, H., & Parr, J. R. (2016). Factors affecting age at ASD diagnosis in UK: No evidence that diagnosis age has decreased between 2004 and 2014. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 1974–1984. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2716-6.
Central Bureau of Statistics. (2012). National population and housing census 2011. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics.
Central Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Population monograph of Nepal, Volume II (Economic Demography). Retrieved from http://cbs.gov.np/image/data/Population/Population%20Monograph%20of%20Nepal%202014/Population%20Monograph%20V02.pdf.
Chen, C.-Y., Liu, C.-Y., Su, W.-C., Huang, S.-L., & Lin, K.-M. (2008). Urbanicity-related variation in help-seeking and services utilization among preschool-age children with autism in Taiwan. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(3), 489–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0416-y.
Clark, M. L. E., Vinen, Z., Barbaro, J., & Dissanayake, C. (2017). School age outcomes of children diagnosed early and later with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3279-x.
Coo, H., Ouellette-Kuntz, H., Lam, M., Yu, C. T., et al. (2012). Correlates of age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in six Canadian regions. Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada, 32(2), 90–100.
Daley, T. C. (2004). From symptom recognition to diagnosis: Children with autism in urban India. Social Science & Medicine, 58(7), 1323–1335. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00330-7.
Daniels, A. M., & Mandell, D. S. (2014). Explaining differences in age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis: A critical review. Autism, 18(5), 583–597. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313480277.
Dawson, G. (2008). Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 775–803. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000370.
Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y.-J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., … Fombonne, E. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Research, 5(3), 160–179. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.239.
Flanagan, H. E., Perry, A., & Freeman, N. L. (2012). Effectiveness of large-scale community-based intensive behavioral intervention: A waitlist comparison study exploring outcomes and predictors. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 673–682.
Fountain, C., King, M. D., & Bearman, P. S. (2011). Age of diagnosis for autism: Individual and community factors across 10 birth cohorts. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(6), 503–510. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.104588.
Giarelli, E., Wiggins, L. D., Rice, C. E., Levy, S. E., Kirby, R. S., Pinto-Martin, J., & Mandell, D. (2010). Sex differences in the evaluation and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders among children. Disability and Health Journal, 3(2), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2009.07.001.
Goli, S., Bhandari, P., Atla, U. M. R., & Chattopadhayay, A. (2017). Childhood mortality differentials by ecological region in Nepal. Population, Space and Place, 23(2), 1. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1977.
Gotham, K., Pickles, A., & Lord, C. (2009). Standardizing ADOS scores for a measure of severity in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(5), 693–705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0674-3.
IBM Corp. (2017). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 25.0). Armonk, NYI:IBM Corp.
Idring, S., Rai, D., Dal, H., Dalman, C., Sturm, H., Zander, E., … Magnusson, C. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders in the Stockholm youth cohort: Design, prevalence and validity. PLoS ONE, 7(7), e41280. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041280.
Juneja, M., Mukherjee, S., & Sharma, S. (2005). A descriptive hospital based study of children with autism. Indian Pediatrics, 42(5), 453.
Kommu, J. V. S., Srinath, K. R.,G., Girimaji, S., Seshadri, S. C. P., Gopalakrishna, S., G., & Doddaballapura, K., S (2017). Profile of two hundred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from a tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry centre. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 28, 51–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2017.03.017.
Lagunju, I. A., Bella-Awusah, T. T., & Omigbodun, O. O. (2014). Autistic disorder in Nigeria: Profile and challenges to management. Epilepsy & Behavior, 39, 126–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.08.020.
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H. Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., … Rutter, M. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223.
Mandell, D. S., Knashawn, H. M., Xie, M., Lindsay, M. S., Aubyn, J. L., C. S., & Steven, C. M. (2010). Age of diagnosis among medicaid-enrolled children with autism, 2001–2004. Psychiatric Services, 61(8), 822–829. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2010.61.8.822. doi.
Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116(6), 1480–1486. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-0185.
Ministry of Health and Population, New ERA, & ICF International. (2012). Nepal demographic and health survey 2011. Kathmandu: Ministry of Health and Population.
Montiel-Nava, C., Chacín, J. A., & González-Ávila, Z. (2017). Age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in Latino children: The case of Venezuelan children. Autism, 21(5), 573–580. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361317701267.
Pandey, J. P., Dhakal, M. R., Karki, S., Poudel, P., & Pradhan, M. S. (2013). Maternal and child health in Nepal: The effects of caste, ethnicity, and regional identity: Further analysis of the 2011 Nepal demographic and health survey. Calverton, MD: Nepal Ministry of Health and Population, New ERA, and ICF International.
Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., & Matson, J. (2012). Cost comparison of early intensive behavioral intervention and treatment as usual for children with autism spectrum disorder in the Netherlands. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 1763–1772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.04.006.
Petrou, A. M., Parr, J. R., & McConachie, H. (2018). Gender differences in parent-reported age at diagnosis of children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 50, 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2018.02.003.
Preeti, K., Srinath, D., Seshadri, S., Girimaji, S. P., S. C., & Kommu, J. V. S. (2017). Lost time—Need for more awareness in early intervention of autism spectrum disorder. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 25, 13–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2016.07.021.
Randall, M., Sciberras, E., Brignell, A., Ihsen, E., Efron, D., Dissanayake, C., & Williams, K. (2016). Autism spectrum disorder: Presentation and prevalence in a nationally representative Australian sample. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(3), 243–253. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867415595287.
Rosenberg, R. E., Landa, R., Law, J. K., Stuart, E. A., & Law, P. A. (2011). Factors affecting age at initial autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national survey. Autism Research and Treatment. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/874619.
Shakya, D. R. (2010). Psychiatric morbidity profiles of child and adolescent psychiatry out-patients in a tertiary-care hospital. Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society, 30(2), 79–84.
Shooshtari, A. A., Sadeghiyeh, T., Mohammadi, M. R., Ghanizadeh, A., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2009). Symptoms of children with autism spectrum disorder, a clinical sample. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 4(4), 165–169.
Shrestha, M., & Santangelo, S. (2014). Autism: Challenge in Nepal. In V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, & C. R. Martin (Eds.), Comprehensive Guide to Autism (pp. 2497–2507): New York: Springer.
Shrestha, M., & Shrestha, R. (2014). Symptom recognition to diagnosis of autism in Nepal. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1483–1485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-2005-6.
Springer, P. E., van Toorn, R., Laughton, B., & Kidd, M. (2013). Characteristics of children with pervasive developmental disorders attending a developmental clinic in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Child Health, 7, 95–99.
Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th edn.). USA: Pearson Education Limited.
Talero-Gutiérrez, C., Rodríguez, M., De La Rosa, D., Morales, G., & Vélez-Van-Meerbeke, A. (2012). Profile of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders in an institution in Bogotá, Colombia. Neurología (English Edition), 27(2), 90–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrleng.2012.03.001.
Thapa, R. (2016). Retrospective descriptive study of cerebral palsy in Nepal. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(7), 2285–2291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2757-x.
Tilahun, D., Hanlon, C., Fekadu, A., Tekola, B., Baheretibeb, Y., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2016). Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: A cross-sectional facility-based survey. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1), 1.
Tulachan, P., Chapagain, M., Kunwar, A., & Sharma, V. (2014). Psychiatric morbidity pattern in a child and adolescent guidance clinic. Journal of Psychiatrists’ Association of Nepal, 1(1), 20–23.
Valicenti-McDermott, M., Hottinger, K., Seijo, R., & Shulman, L. (2012). Age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. The Journal of Pediatrics, 161(3), 554–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.012.
Van Wijngaarden-Cremers, P. J. M., van Eeten, E., Groen, W. B., Van Deurzen, P. A., Oosterling, I. J., & Van der Gaag, R. J. (2014). Gender and age differences in the core triad of impairments in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 627–635. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1913-9.
Vivanti, G., Barbaro, J., Hudry, K., Dissanayake, C., & Prior, M. (2013). Intellectual development in autism spectrum disorders: New insights from longitudinal studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 354. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00354.
Williams, E., Thomas, K., Sidebotham, H., & Emond, A. (2008). Prevalence and characteristics of autistic spectrum disorders in the ALSPAC cohort. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 50(9), 672–677. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03042.x. doi.
World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Age of Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nepal
- Springer US
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432