Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2/2009

01-02-2009 | Empirical Research

African–American Parents’ Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing Out the Role of Gender

Auteurs: Tiffany L. Brown, Miriam R. Linver, Melanie Evans, Donna DeGennaro

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 2/2009

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9–12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Barton, A. C., & Yang, K. (2000). The culture of power and science education: Learning from Miguel. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37, 871–889. doi :10.1002/1098-2736(200010)37:8<871::AID-TEA7>3.0.CO;2-9. CrossRef Barton, A. C., & Yang, K. (2000). The culture of power and science education: Learning from Miguel. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37, 871–889. doi :10.1002/1098-2736(200010)37:8<871::AID-TEA7>3.0.CO;2-9. CrossRef
go back to reference Bowman, P. J., & Howard, C. (1985). Race-related socialization, motivation, and academic achievement: A study of Black youths in three-generation families. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24(2), 134–141. PubMedCrossRef Bowman, P. J., & Howard, C. (1985). Race-related socialization, motivation, and academic achievement: A study of Black youths in three-generation families. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24(2), 134–141. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, T. L., & Krishnakumar, A. (2007). Development and validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1072–1085. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-007-9197-z. CrossRef Brown, T. L., & Krishnakumar, A. (2007). Development and validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1072–1085. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-007-9197-z. CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, T. L., Linver, M. R., & Evans, M. (in press). The role of gender in the racial and ethnic socialization of African American adolescents. Youth and Society. Brown, T. L., Linver, M. R., & Evans, M. (in press). The role of gender in the racial and ethnic socialization of African American adolescents. Youth and Society.
go back to reference Caughy, M., O’Campo, P. J., Randolph, S. M., & Nickerson, K. (2002). The influence of racial socialization practices on the cognitive and behavioral competence of African American pre-schoolers. Child Development, 73(5), 1611–1625. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-8624.​00493. PubMedCrossRef Caughy, M., O’Campo, P. J., Randolph, S. M., & Nickerson, K. (2002). The influence of racial socialization practices on the cognitive and behavioral competence of African American pre-schoolers. Child Development, 73(5), 1611–1625. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-8624.​00493. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Constantine, M. G., & Blackmon, S. K. (2002). Black adolescents’ racial and ethnic socialization experiences: Their relations to home, school, and peer self-esteem. Journal of Black Studies, 32, 322–335. doi: 10.​1177/​0023470203200600​4. CrossRef Constantine, M. G., & Blackmon, S. K. (2002). Black adolescents’ racial and ethnic socialization experiences: Their relations to home, school, and peer self-esteem. Journal of Black Studies, 32, 322–335. doi: 10.​1177/​0023470203200600​4. CrossRef
go back to reference Crockett, L., Schulenberg, J. E., & Peterson, A. C. (1987). Congruence between objective and self-report data in a sample of young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2(4), 392–393. doi: 10.​1177/​074355488724006. CrossRef Crockett, L., Schulenberg, J. E., & Peterson, A. C. (1987). Congruence between objective and self-report data in a sample of young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2(4), 392–393. doi: 10.​1177/​074355488724006. CrossRef
go back to reference Fischer, A. R., & Shaw, C. M. (1999). African Americans mental health and perceptions of racist discrimination: The moderating effects of racial socialization experiences and self-esteem. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 395–407. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-0167.​46.​3.​395. CrossRef Fischer, A. R., & Shaw, C. M. (1999). African Americans mental health and perceptions of racist discrimination: The moderating effects of racial socialization experiences and self-esteem. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 395–407. doi: 10.​1037/​0022-0167.​46.​3.​395. CrossRef
go back to reference Frabutt, J. M., Walker, A. M., & MacKinnon-Lewis, C. (2002). Racial socialization messages and the quality of mother/child interactions in African American families. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 22(2), 200–217. doi: 10.​1177/​0272431602022002​004. CrossRef Frabutt, J. M., Walker, A. M., & MacKinnon-Lewis, C. (2002). Racial socialization messages and the quality of mother/child interactions in African American families. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 22(2), 200–217. doi: 10.​1177/​0272431602022002​004. CrossRef
go back to reference Gonzales, N. A., Cauce, A. M., Friedman, R. J., & Mason, C. A. (1996). Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African–American adolescents: One-year prospective effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24(3), 365–387. doi: 10.​1007/​BF02512027. PubMedCrossRef Gonzales, N. A., Cauce, A. M., Friedman, R. J., & Mason, C. A. (1996). Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African–American adolescents: One-year prospective effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24(3), 365–387. doi: 10.​1007/​BF02512027. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Honora, D. T. (2002). The relationship of gender and achievement to future outlook among African American adolescents. Adolescence, 37(146), 301–316. PubMed Honora, D. T. (2002). The relationship of gender and achievement to future outlook among African American adolescents. Adolescence, 37(146), 301–316. PubMed
go back to reference Kapungu, C. T., Holmbeck, G. N., & Paikoff, R. L. (2006). Longitudinal associations between parenting practices and early sex risk behaviors in urban African American adolescents: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(5), 787–798. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-006-9102-1. CrossRef Kapungu, C. T., Holmbeck, G. N., & Paikoff, R. L. (2006). Longitudinal associations between parenting practices and early sex risk behaviors in urban African American adolescents: The moderating role of gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(5), 787–798. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-006-9102-1. CrossRef
go back to reference Marshall, S. (1995). Ethnic socialization of African American children: Implications for parenting, identity development, and academic achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24(4), 377–396. doi: 10.​1007/​BF01537187. CrossRef Marshall, S. (1995). Ethnic socialization of African American children: Implications for parenting, identity development, and academic achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24(4), 377–396. doi: 10.​1007/​BF01537187. CrossRef
go back to reference Maton, K. I., Hrabowski, F. A., I. I. I., & Greif, G. L. (1998). Preparing the way: A qualitative study of high-achieving African American males and the role of the family. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 639–668. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1022197006900. PubMedCrossRef Maton, K. I., Hrabowski, F. A., I. I. I., & Greif, G. L. (1998). Preparing the way: A qualitative study of high-achieving African American males and the role of the family. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 639–668. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1022197006900. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McKay, M. M., Atkins, M. S., Hawkins, T., Brown, C., & Lynn, C. J. (2003). Inner-city African American parental involvement in children’s schooling: Racial socialization and social support from the parent community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1–2), 107–114. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1025655109283. PubMedCrossRef McKay, M. M., Atkins, M. S., Hawkins, T., Brown, C., & Lynn, C. J. (2003). Inner-city African American parental involvement in children’s schooling: Racial socialization and social support from the parent community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1–2), 107–114. doi: 10.​1023/​A:​1025655109283. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mello, Z. R., & Swanson, D. P. (2007). Gender differences in African American adolescents’ personal, educational, and occupational expectations and perceptions of neighborhood quality. The Journal of Black Psychology, 33(2), 150–168. doi: 10.​1177/​0095798407299514​. CrossRef Mello, Z. R., & Swanson, D. P. (2007). Gender differences in African American adolescents’ personal, educational, and occupational expectations and perceptions of neighborhood quality. The Journal of Black Psychology, 33(2), 150–168. doi: 10.​1177/​0095798407299514​. CrossRef
go back to reference Mickelson, R. A., & Greene, A. D. (2006). Connecting pieces of the puzzle: Gender differences in Black middle school students achievement. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(1), 34–48. Mickelson, R. A., & Greene, A. D. (2006). Connecting pieces of the puzzle: Gender differences in Black middle school students achievement. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(1), 34–48.
go back to reference Miller, D. B. (1999). Racial socialization and racial identity: Can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents? Adolescence, 34, 493–501. PubMed Miller, D. B. (1999). Racial socialization and racial identity: Can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents? Adolescence, 34, 493–501. PubMed
go back to reference Neblett, E. W., Jr, Philip, C. L., Cogburn, C. D., & Sellers, R. M. (2006). African American adolescents’ discrimination experiences and academic achievement: Racial socialization as a cultural compensatory and protective factor. The Journal of Black Psychology, 32(2), 199–218. doi: 10.​1177/​0095798406287072​. CrossRef Neblett, E. W., Jr, Philip, C. L., Cogburn, C. D., & Sellers, R. M. (2006). African American adolescents’ discrimination experiences and academic achievement: Racial socialization as a cultural compensatory and protective factor. The Journal of Black Psychology, 32(2), 199–218. doi: 10.​1177/​0095798406287072​. CrossRef
go back to reference Planty, M., Hussar, W., Snyder, T., Provasnik, S., Kena, G., Dinkes, R., et al. (2008). The condition of education 2008 (NCES 2008-031). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Planty, M., Hussar, W., Snyder, T., Provasnik, S., Kena, G., Dinkes, R., et al. (2008). The condition of education 2008 (NCES 2008-031). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
go back to reference Ponterotto, J., Utsey, S., & Pedersen, P. (2006). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors, educators, and parents (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ponterotto, J., Utsey, S., & Pedersen, P. (2006). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors, educators, and parents (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Thornton, M. C., Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Allen, W. R. (1990). Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of racial socialization of Black parents. Child Development, 61, 401–409. doi: 10.​2307/​1131101. PubMedCrossRef Thornton, M. C., Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Allen, W. R. (1990). Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of racial socialization of Black parents. Child Development, 61, 401–409. doi: 10.​2307/​1131101. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Current population survey: America’s families and living arrangements: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Current population survey: America’s families and living arrangements: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
go back to reference Weiner, L. (1993). Preparing teachers for urban schools: Lessons from thirty years of school reform. New York: Teachers College Press. Weiner, L. (1993). Preparing teachers for urban schools: Lessons from thirty years of school reform. New York: Teachers College Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
African–American Parents’ Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing Out the Role of Gender
Auteurs
Tiffany L. Brown
Miriam R. Linver
Melanie Evans
Donna DeGennaro
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 2/2009
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9362-z

Andere artikelen Uitgave 2/2009

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2/2009 Naar de uitgave