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14-09-2020 | Original Article | Uitgave 1/2021 Open Access

Cognitive Therapy and Research 1/2021

Advancing the Assessment of Mindfulness-Based Meditation Practice: Psychometric Evaluation of the Mindfulness Adherence Questionnaire

Cognitive Therapy and Research > Uitgave 1/2021
Craig Hassed, Andrew Flighty, Richard Chambers, Dominic Hosemans, Neil Bailey, Sherelle Connaughton, Stuart Lee, Nikolaos Kazantzis
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10608-020-10150-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Mindfulness-based meditation practice (MBP) can be assessed in terms of time spent (quantity) or skill acquisition (quality), but these components have rarely been delineated in adherence measures. Individuals may also engage in MBP through everyday life (informal practice) and dedicate specific time for MBP (formal practice).


The Mindfulness Adherence Questionnaire, a scale designed to assess quantity and quality of formal and informal MBP was evaluated. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design to examine internal reliability and construct validity (N = 282). Study 2 examined test–retest reliability and sensitivity (N = 55) during a 4-week mindfulness intervention.


A nested-factor model showed adequate fit: MAQ items loaded on both the general factor (Practice) and specific factors (Formal and Informal). Discriminant validity analyses revealed the MAQ captured MBP adherence distinct from trait mindfulness. Quality of both formal and informal mindfulness practice was more strongly associated with higher levels of trait mindfulness than quantity. Changes in MAQ Quantity scores were observed over time.


The MAQ is reliable and has a meaningful scale structure, may usefully distinguish both quality versus quantity and formal versus informal MBP, and is sensitive to variations in MBP and does not solely measure trait mindfulness.

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