Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Children’s empathy and prosocial behavior play an important role in their social competence. Of the influential factors, research has demonstrated that parental behaviors and the quality of the parent–child relationship are important correlates of children’s development of empathy and prosocial behavior. The current study examined the associations between different types of parental behaviors (i.e., parental knowledge, parental solicitation, and parental psychological control), “balanced connectedness” in the parent–child relationship, which allows for both closeness and autonomy, and empathy and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The participants were 335 married couples (more than 80 % European American) and their adolescent child (49.0 % female; 10–13 years). Data were collected at three time points for parental behaviors, balanced parent–child connectedness, and adolescents’ empathy and prosocial behavior, respectively. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that adolescents’ perceptions of parental solicitation and parental psychological control may be associated with their empathy and prosocial behavior through their perceived balanced connectedness with parents. These findings suggest that enhancing balanced connectedness in the parent–child relationship may contribute to promoting empathy and prosocial behavior in adolescents over time. Further, this study suggests that parental solicitation may play a role in adolescents’ empathic and prosocial development, possibly depending on the quality of the parent–child relationship.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1958). Measuring security in personal adjustment. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Barber, B. K. (2002). Positive interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning: An assessment of measures among adolescents. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? (pp. 147–161). New York: Springer.
Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, 1–147. PubMed
Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Toward a social–psychological answer. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Carlo, G., Fabes, R. A., Laible, D., & Kupanoff, K. (1999). Early adolescence and prosocial/moral behavior II: The role of social and contextual influences. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 133–147. CrossRef
Carlson, M., McLanahan, S. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Do good partners make good parents? Relationship quality and parenting in two-parent families. Princeton, NJ: Center for Research on Child Wellbeing Working Paper.
Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Wakschlag, L. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1995). A psychological perspective on the development of caring in children and youth: The role of the family. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 515–556. CrossRef
Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. CrossRef
Dunn, J. (1988). The beginnings of social understanding. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dunn, J. (2006). Moral development in early childhood and social interaction in the family. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 331–350). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Eisenberg, N. (1986). Altruistic emotion, cognition, and behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial behavior. In N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.) and W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th edn., pp. 646–718). New York: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., Lennon, R., & Pasternak, J. F. (1986). Altruistic values and moral judgment. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Altruistic emotion, cognition and behavior (pp. 115–159). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fabes, R. A., Carlo, G., Kupanoff, K., & Laible, D. (1999). Early adolescence and prosocial/moral behavior I: The role of individual processes. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(1), 5–16. CrossRef
Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1996). An examination of age and sex differences in prosocial behavior and empathy. Unpublished manuscript, Arizona State University at Tempe.
Hastings, P. D., Rubin, K. H., & DeRose, L. (2005). Links among gender, inhibition, and parental socialization in the development of prosocial behavior. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 51, 467–493. CrossRef
Hastings, P. D., Utendale, W. T., & Sullivan, C. (2007). The socialization of prosocial development. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 638–664). New York: Guilford Press.
Hawk, S. T., Hale, W. W., I. I. I., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., & Meeus, W. (2008). Adolescents’ perceptions of privacy invasion in reaction to parental solicitation and control. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 583–608. CrossRef
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420. CrossRef
Hinde, R. A. (2002). Why good is good: The sources of morality. London/New York: Wiley.
Hoffman, M. L. (1983). Affective and cognitive processes in moral internalization. In E. T. Higgins, D. N. Ruble, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), Social cognition and social development (pp. 236–274). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Huebner, A. J., & Mancini, J. A. (2003). Shaping structured out-of-school time use among youth: The effects of self, family, and friend systems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 453–463. CrossRef
Keith, J. G., Nelson, C. S., Schlabach, J. H., & Thompson, C. J. (1990). The relationship between parental employment and three measures of early adolescent responsibility: Family-related, personal, and social. Journal of Early Adolescence, 10, 399–415. CrossRef
Lee, R. M., Draper, M., & Lee, S. (2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 310–318. CrossRef
Lichter, D. T., Shanahan, M. J., & Gardner, E. L. (2002). Helping others? The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior. Youth & Society, 34, 89–119. CrossRef
Lindsey, E. W., Colwell, M. J., Frabutt, J. M., Chambers, J., & MacKinnon-Lewis, C. (2008). Mother-child dyadic synchrony in European American and African American families during early adolescence. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 289–315. CrossRef
Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202. CrossRef
McGrath, M. P., & Zook, J. M. (2011). Maternal control of girls versus boys: Relations to empathy and persuasive style with peers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 57–65. CrossRef
McMahon, S. D., & Washburn, J. J. (2003). Violence prevention: An evaluation of program effects with urban African American students. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 43–62. CrossRef
Mussen, P., & Eisenberg-Berg, N. (1977). Roots of caring, sharing and helping: The development of prosocial behavior in children. San Francisco: Freeman.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008). Mplus 5.1 [Computer software]. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Christensen, K. J. (2011). Empathy and self-regulation as mediators between parenting and adolescents’ prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 545–551. CrossRef
Parke, R. D., & Sawin, D. B. (1979). Children’s privacy in the home: Developmental, ecological, and child-rearing determinants. Environment and Behavior, 11, 87–104. CrossRef
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press.
Petronio, S. (1994). Privacy binds in family interactions: The case of parental privacy invasion. In W. R. E. Cupach & B. H. E. Spitzberg (Eds.), The dark side of interpersonal communication (pp. 241–257). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pratt, M. W., Skoe, E. E., & Arnold, M. L. (2004). Care reasoning development and family socialization patterns in later adolescence: A longitudinal analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 139–147. CrossRef
Savin-Williams, R. C., & Berndt, T. J. (1990). Friendship and peer relations. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 277–307). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Selman, R. L. (1980). The growth of interpersonal understanding: Developmental and clinical analyses. New York: Academic Press.
Shek, D. T. L. (2006). Perceived parent-child relational qualities and parental behavioral and psychological control in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Adolescence, 41, 563–581. PubMed
Staub, E. (1992). The origins of caring, helping, and nonaggression: Parental socialization, the family system, schools, and cultural influence. In P. M. Oliner, L. Baron, L. A. Blum, D. L. Krebs, & M. Z. Smolenska (Eds.), Embracing the other: Philosophical, psychological, and historical perspectives on altruism (pp. 390–412). New York: New York University Press.
Stewart, S. M., Bond, M. H., Ho, L. M., Zaman, R. M., Dar, R., & Anwar, M. (2000). Perceptions of parents and adolescent outcomes in Pakistan. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18, 335–352. CrossRef
Yeoh, S. H., & Woo, P. J. (2010). Parental involvement and its effects on satisfaction of parent-child relationship. Sunway Academic Journal, 7, 48–62.
Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Adolescents’ Empathy and Prosocial Behavior in the Family Context: A Longitudinal Study
Randal D. Day
- Springer US