Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 12/2010

01-12-2010 | Empirical Research

Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies Between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

Auteurs: Gail M. Ferguson, Christopher A. Hafen, Brett Laursen

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 12/2010

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a public school in Jamaica described their actual and ideal selves in several different domains—friendship, dating, schoolwork, family, sports, and religion/spirituality—using a Pie measure. Students also completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Discrepancies favoring the ideal self and those favoring the actual self were linked to depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and poor school grades in the domains of friendship, dating, and schoolwork. Effects were stronger among older adolescents than among younger adolescents. Theories of actual/ideal self-discrepancies have focused on problems arising when the ideal self overshadows the actual self; however, the present study finds that self-discrepancies, regardless of their direction, are a liability. Implications for self-discrepancy measurement, adolescent development, and clinical practice are discussed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Bargh, J. A., Bond, R. N., Lombard, W. J., & Tota, M. E. (1986). The additive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 869–878. CrossRef Bargh, J. A., Bond, R. N., Lombard, W. J., & Tota, M. E. (1986). The additive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 869–878. CrossRef
go back to reference Bentall, R. R., Kinderman, P., & Manson, K. (2005). Self-discrepancies in bipolar disorder: Comparison of manic, depressed, remitted and normal participants. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 457–473. CrossRefPubMed Bentall, R. R., Kinderman, P., & Manson, K. (2005). Self-discrepancies in bipolar disorder: Comparison of manic, depressed, remitted and normal participants. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 457–473. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bessenoff, G. R., & Snow, D. (2006). Absorbing society’s influence: Body image self-discrepancy and internalized shame. Sex Roles, 54, 727–731. CrossRef Bessenoff, G. R., & Snow, D. (2006). Absorbing society’s influence: Body image self-discrepancy and internalized shame. Sex Roles, 54, 727–731. CrossRef
go back to reference Byrne, B. M. (1988). The Self Description Questionnaire III: Testing for equivalent factorial validity across ability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(2), 397–406. CrossRef Byrne, B. M. (1988). The Self Description Questionnaire III: Testing for equivalent factorial validity across ability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(2), 397–406. CrossRef
go back to reference Carver, C. S., Lawrence, J. W., & Scheier, M. F. (1999). Self-discrepancies and affect: Incorporating the role of feared selves. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 783–792. CrossRef Carver, C. S., Lawrence, J. W., & Scheier, M. F. (1999). Self-discrepancies and affect: Incorporating the role of feared selves. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 783–792. CrossRef
go back to reference Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (2001). The pie. In J. Touliatos, B. F. Perlmutter, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Handbook of family measurement techniques (p. 133). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (2001). The pie. In J. Touliatos, B. F. Perlmutter, & M. A. Straus (Eds.), Handbook of family measurement techniques (p. 133). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
go back to reference DuBois, D. L. (1993a). Self-description questionnaire. Unpublished measure. Columbia, Missouri: Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia. DuBois, D. L. (1993a). Self-description questionnaire. Unpublished measure. Columbia, Missouri: Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia.
go back to reference DuBois, D. L. (1993b). Self-standards questionnaire. Unpublished measure. Columbia, Missouri: Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia. DuBois, D. L. (1993b). Self-standards questionnaire. Unpublished measure. Columbia, Missouri: Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia.
go back to reference DuBois, D. L., Tevendale, H. D., Burk-Braxton, C., Swenson, L. P., & Hardesty, J. L. (2000). Self-system influences during early adolescence: Investigation of an integrative model. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(1), 12–43. CrossRef DuBois, D. L., Tevendale, H. D., Burk-Braxton, C., Swenson, L. P., & Hardesty, J. L. (2000). Self-system influences during early adolescence: Investigation of an integrative model. Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(1), 12–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Eccles, J. S., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J. L., et al. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motivation (pp. 75–146). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman. Eccles, J. S., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M., Meece, J. L., et al. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motivation (pp. 75–146). San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.
go back to reference Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R. D., & Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64(3), 830–847. CrossRefPubMed Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R. D., & Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64(3), 830–847. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. NewYork: Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. NewYork: Norton.
go back to reference Evans, H. (2001). Inside Jamaican schools. Kingston 7: University of the West Indies Press. Evans, H. (2001). Inside Jamaican schools. Kingston 7: University of the West Indies Press.
go back to reference Ferguson, G. M. (2006). “A Me Dis”: A study of Jamaican adolescent identity construction using a graphical measure. In R. Craven, J. Eccles, M. Trinh Ha (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th international biennial self research conference. Sydney: SELF Research Center, University of Western Sydney. Ferguson, G. M. (2006). “A Me Dis”: A study of Jamaican adolescent identity construction using a graphical measure. In R. Craven, J. Eccles, M. Trinh Ha (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th international biennial self research conference. Sydney: SELF Research Center, University of Western Sydney.
go back to reference Ferguson, G. M., & Dubow, E. F. (2007). Self-representations of Jamaican adolescents: Perceived parental ideal, own ideal and actual self. Caribbean Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 27–43. Ferguson, G. M., & Dubow, E. F. (2007). Self-representations of Jamaican adolescents: Perceived parental ideal, own ideal and actual self. Caribbean Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 27–43.
go back to reference Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203–211. CrossRef Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203–211. CrossRef
go back to reference Harter, S. (1988). The self-perception profile for adolescents. Unpublished manual. Denver, Colorado: University of Denver. Harter, S. (1988). The self-perception profile for adolescents. Unpublished manual. Denver, Colorado: University of Denver.
go back to reference Harter, S. (1999). The construction of self. New York: The Guilford Press. Harter, S. (1999). The construction of self. New York: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Harter, S. (2006). Self-processes and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd Ed., Vol. 1. Hoboken, pp. 370–418). NJ: Wiley. Harter, S. (2006). Self-processes and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd Ed., Vol. 1. Hoboken, pp. 370–418). NJ: Wiley.
go back to reference Harter, S., Bresnick, S., Bouchey, H. A., & Whitesell, N. R. (1997). The development of multiple role-related selves during adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 835–853. CrossRefPubMed Harter, S., Bresnick, S., Bouchey, H. A., & Whitesell, N. R. (1997). The development of multiple role-related selves during adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 835–853. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Helmke, A., & Van Aken, M. A. (1995). The causal ordering of academic achievement and self-concept ability during elementary school: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 624–637. CrossRef Helmke, A., & Van Aken, M. A. (1995). The causal ordering of academic achievement and self-concept ability during elementary school: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 624–637. CrossRef
go back to reference Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319–340. CrossRefPubMed Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319–340. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Higgins, E. T., Bond, R. N., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1986). Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: How magnitude, accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(1), 5–15. CrossRef Higgins, E. T., Bond, R. N., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1986). Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: How magnitude, accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(1), 5–15. CrossRef
go back to reference Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3, 51–76. Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3, 51–76.
go back to reference Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Moretti, M. M. (1995). Self-discrepancies and developmental shifts in vulnerability: Life transitions in the regulatory significance of others. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology (Vol. 6, pp. 191–230). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Moretti, M. M. (1995). Self-discrepancies and developmental shifts in vulnerability: Life transitions in the regulatory significance of others. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology (Vol. 6, pp. 191–230). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
go back to reference Jacobson, E. (1946). The effect of disappointment on ego and superego formation in normal and depressive development. Psychoanalytic Review, 33, 129–147. Jacobson, E. (1946). The effect of disappointment on ego and superego formation in normal and depressive development. Psychoanalytic Review, 33, 129–147.
go back to reference James, W. (1890/1950). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1) . New York: Henry Holt. Unaltered republication, New York: Dover. James, W. (1890/1950). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1) . New York: Henry Holt. Unaltered republication, New York: Dover.
go back to reference Kinderman, P., & Bentall, R. P. (1996). Self-discrepancies and persecutory delusions: Evidence for a model of paranoid ideation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(1), 106–113. CrossRefPubMed Kinderman, P., & Bentall, R. P. (1996). Self-discrepancies and persecutory delusions: Evidence for a model of paranoid ideation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(1), 106–113. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kling, K. C., Hyde, Janet S., Showers, C. J., & Buswell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(4), 470–500. CrossRefPubMed Kling, K. C., Hyde, Janet S., Showers, C. J., & Buswell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(4), 470–500. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klingenspor, B. (2002). Gender-related self-discrepancies and bulimic eating behavior. Sex Roles, 47(1/2), 51–64. CrossRef Klingenspor, B. (2002). Gender-related self-discrepancies and bulimic eating behavior. Sex Roles, 47(1/2), 51–64. CrossRef
go back to reference Makros, J., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Relationships between identity and self-representations during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(5), 623–639. CrossRef Makros, J., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Relationships between identity and self-representations during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(5), 623–639. CrossRef
go back to reference Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969. CrossRef Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist, 41, 954–969. CrossRef
go back to reference McDaniel, B. L., & Grice, J. W. (2008). Predicting psychological well-being from self-discrepancies: A comparison of idiographic and nomothetic measures. Self and Identity, 7(3), 243–261. CrossRef McDaniel, B. L., & Grice, J. W. (2008). Predicting psychological well-being from self-discrepancies: A comparison of idiographic and nomothetic measures. Self and Identity, 7(3), 243–261. CrossRef
go back to reference Moretti, M. M. (1991). The law of cognitive structure activation: New directions in understanding depressive symptoms and psychotherapy. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 196–199. CrossRef Moretti, M. M. (1991). The law of cognitive structure activation: New directions in understanding depressive symptoms and psychotherapy. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 196–199. CrossRef
go back to reference Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond actual-self ratings. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 26(2), 108–123. CrossRef Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond actual-self ratings. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 26(2), 108–123. CrossRef
go back to reference Moretti, M. M., & Wiebe, V. J. (1999). Self-discrepancy in adolescence: Own and parental standpoints on the self. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45(4), 624–649. Moretti, M. M., & Wiebe, V. J. (1999). Self-discrepancy in adolescence: Own and parental standpoints on the self. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45(4), 624–649.
go back to reference Phillips, A. G., & Silvia, P. J. (2005). Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(5), 703–713. CrossRefPubMed Phillips, A. G., & Silvia, P. J. (2005). Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(5), 703–713. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depressive symptoms scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depressive symptoms scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
go back to reference Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (Revised edition ed.). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (Revised edition ed.). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
go back to reference Sanderson, C. A., Wallier, J. M., Stockdale, J. E., & Yopyk, D. J. (2008). Who feels discrepancy and how does feeling discrepant matter? Examining the presence and consequences of feeling discrepant from personal and social norms related to thinness in American and British high school girls. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(9), 995–1020. CrossRef Sanderson, C. A., Wallier, J. M., Stockdale, J. E., & Yopyk, D. J. (2008). Who feels discrepancy and how does feeling discrepant matter? Examining the presence and consequences of feeling discrepant from personal and social norms related to thinness in American and British high school girls. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(9), 995–1020. CrossRef
go back to reference Sandler, J., & Joffe, W. G. (1965). Notes on childhood depressive symptoms. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 46, 88–96. PubMed Sandler, J., & Joffe, W. G. (1965). Notes on childhood depressive symptoms. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 46, 88–96. PubMed
go back to reference Sawdon, A., Cooper, M., & Seabrook, R. (2007). The relationship between self-discrepancies, eating disorder and depressive symptoms in women. European Eating Disorders Review, 15, 207–212. CrossRefPubMed Sawdon, A., Cooper, M., & Seabrook, R. (2007). The relationship between self-discrepancies, eating disorder and depressive symptoms in women. European Eating Disorders Review, 15, 207–212. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Scott, L., & O’Hara, M. W. (1993). Self-discrepancies in clinically anxious and depressed university students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 282–287. CrossRefPubMed Scott, L., & O’Hara, M. W. (1993). Self-discrepancies in clinically anxious and depressed university students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 282–287. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Stevens, G., & Hoisington, E. (1987). Occupational prestige and the 1980 US labor force. Social Science Research, 16, 74–105. CrossRef Stevens, G., & Hoisington, E. (1987). Occupational prestige and the 1980 US labor force. Social Science Research, 16, 74–105. CrossRef
go back to reference Stone, J., Aronson, E., Crain, A. L., Winslow, M. P., & Fried, C. B. (1994). Inducing hypocrisy as a means of encouraging young adults to use condoms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(1), 116–128. CrossRef Stone, J., Aronson, E., Crain, A. L., Winslow, M. P., & Fried, C. B. (1994). Inducing hypocrisy as a means of encouraging young adults to use condoms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(1), 116–128. CrossRef
go back to reference Strauman, T. J. (1989). Self-discrepancies in clinical depression and social phobia: Cognitive structures that underlie emotional disorders? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98(1), 14–22. CrossRefPubMed Strauman, T. J. (1989). Self-discrepancies in clinical depression and social phobia: Cognitive structures that underlie emotional disorders? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98(1), 14–22. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1987). Automatic activation of self-discrepancies and emotional syndromes when cognitive structures influence affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1004–1014. CrossRefPubMed Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1987). Automatic activation of self-discrepancies and emotional syndromes when cognitive structures influence affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1004–1014. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Strauman, T. J., Vookles, J., Berenstein, V., Chaiken, S., & Higgins, E. T. (1991). Self-discrepancies and vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(6), 926–956. CrossRef Strauman, T. J., Vookles, J., Berenstein, V., Chaiken, S., & Higgins, E. T. (1991). Self-discrepancies and vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(6), 926–956. CrossRef
go back to reference Strauss, R., & Goldberg, W. A. (1999). Self and possible selves during the transition to fatherhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(2), 244–259. CrossRef Strauss, R., & Goldberg, W. A. (1999). Self and possible selves during the transition to fatherhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(2), 244–259. CrossRef
go back to reference Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort difference on the children’s depression inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(4), 578–588. CrossRefPubMed Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort difference on the children’s depression inventory: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(4), 578–588. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., & Pintrich, J. R. (1996). Development between the ages of 11 and 25. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 148–185). New York, NY: Prentice Hall International. Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., & Pintrich, J. R. (1996). Development between the ages of 11 and 25. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 148–185). New York, NY: Prentice Hall International.
Metagegevens
Titel
Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies Between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions
Auteurs
Gail M. Ferguson
Christopher A. Hafen
Brett Laursen
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2010
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 12/2010
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9461-5