The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal development were selected, differences were found only on Vineland Receptive Communication and Daily Living. Correlation analyses to explore connection of these areas of difference with cognition and autistic symptoms suggested that Vineland Daily Living scores were significantly correlated with nonverbal ability and with ADOS total algorithm scores. Vineland Receptive Communication scores correlated significantly only with ADOS total algorithms. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.