Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 3/2013

01-06-2013 | Original Article

Accurate but Pathological: Social Anxiety and Ensemble Coding of Emotion

Auteurs: Jae-Won Yang, K. Lira Yoon, Sang Chul Chong, Kyung Ja Oh

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 3/2013

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The current study examined whether social anxiety is associated with a biased perception of the overall emotional impression of facial crowds. Participants were presented with facial crowds that consisted of 6, 12, or 24 faces expressing either happiness or anger, after which they were asked to judge whether the crowds were positive or negative. We estimated each participant’s point of subjective equality (PSE) and precision when judging the overall emotion of facial crowds to be negative. The participants’ social anxiety levels were negatively associated with their PSEs to perceive the overall emotion of the crowds as negative. In contrast, there was no significant relation between social anxiety and the degree of precision in the participants’ judgments of facial crowds. These findings indicate that socially anxious individuals lack the positive biases that are present in non-anxious individuals and, thereby, perceive the overall emotion of crowds more negatively compared with their less anxious counterparts.
Literatuur
go back to reference Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1988). Depressive realism: Four theoretical perspectives. In L. B. Alloy (Ed.), Cognitive processes in depression (pp. 223–265). New York: Guilford Press. Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1988). Depressive realism: Four theoretical perspectives. In L. B. Alloy (Ed.), Cognitive processes in depression (pp. 223–265). New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.TR). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.TR). Washington, DC: Author.
go back to reference Amir, N., & Taylor, C. T. (2012). Interpretation training in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 497–511. PubMedCrossRef Amir, N., & Taylor, C. T. (2012). Interpretation training in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 497–511. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carson, R. C., Hollon, S. D., & Shelton, R. C. (2010). Depressive realism and clinical depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 257–265. PubMedCrossRef Carson, R. C., Hollon, S. D., & Shelton, R. C. (2010). Depressive realism and clinical depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 257–265. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chong, S. C., & Treisman, A. (2003). Representation of statistical properties. Vision Research, 43, 393–404. PubMedCrossRef Chong, S. C., & Treisman, A. (2003). Representation of statistical properties. Vision Research, 43, 393–404. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chong, S. C., & Treisman, A. (2005). Statistical processing: Computing the average size in perceptual groups. Vision Research, 45, 891–900. PubMedCrossRef Chong, S. C., & Treisman, A. (2005). Statistical processing: Computing the average size in perceptual groups. Vision Research, 45, 891–900. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chung, Y., & Kwon, J.-H. (2006). Effects of feedback type on social interaction of individuals with social phobia. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25, 489–504. Chung, Y., & Kwon, J.-H. (2006). Effects of feedback type on social interaction of individuals with social phobia. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25, 489–504.
go back to reference De Jong, P. J. (2002). Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety: Differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 501–508. PubMedCrossRef De Jong, P. J. (2002). Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety: Differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 501–508. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fay, N., Page, A. C., Serfaty, C., Tai, V., & Winkler, C. (2008). Speaker overestimation of a communication effectiveness and fear of negative evaluation: Being realistic is unrealistic. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 1160–1165. CrossRef Fay, N., Page, A. C., Serfaty, C., Tai, V., & Winkler, C. (2008). Speaker overestimation of a communication effectiveness and fear of negative evaluation: Being realistic is unrealistic. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 1160–1165. CrossRef
go back to reference Fu, T. S. -T., Koutstaal, W., Poon, L., & Cleare, A. J. (2012). Confidence judgment in depression and dysphoria: The depressive realism vs. negativity hypotheses. Journal of Behavior Therapy, 34, 699–704. Fu, T. S. -T., Koutstaal, W., Poon, L., & Cleare, A. J. (2012). Confidence judgment in depression and dysphoria: The depressive realism vs. negativity hypotheses. Journal of Behavior Therapy, 34, 699–704.
go back to reference Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Presburger, G., Marom, S., & Hermesh, H. (2005). The effects of social anxiety and depression on the evaluation of facial crowds. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 467–474. PubMedCrossRef Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Presburger, G., Marom, S., & Hermesh, H. (2005). The effects of social anxiety and depression on the evaluation of facial crowds. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 467–474. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Haberman, J., & Whitney, D. (2007). Rapid extraction of mean emotion and gender from sets of faces. Current Biology, 17, R751–R753. PubMedCrossRef Haberman, J., & Whitney, D. (2007). Rapid extraction of mean emotion and gender from sets of faces. Current Biology, 17, R751–R753. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Haberman, J., & Whitney, D. (2009). Seeing the mean: Ensemble coding for sets of faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 718–734. PubMedCrossRef Haberman, J., & Whitney, D. (2009). Seeing the mean: Ensemble coding for sets of faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 718–734. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hallion, L. S., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effect of cognitive bias modification on anxiety and depression. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 940–958. PubMedCrossRef Hallion, L. S., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effect of cognitive bias modification on anxiety and depression. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 940–958. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Heinrichs, N., & Hofmann, S. G. (2001). Information processing in social phobia: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 751–770. PubMedCrossRef Heinrichs, N., & Hofmann, S. G. (2001). Information processing in social phobia: A critical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 751–770. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hertel, P. T., & Mathews, A. (2011). Cognitive bias modification: Past perspectives, current findings, and future applications. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 521–536. CrossRef Hertel, P. T., & Mathews, A. (2011). Cognitive bias modification: Past perspectives, current findings, and future applications. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 521–536. CrossRef
go back to reference Hirsch, C. R., & Clark, D. M. (2004). Information-processing bias in social phobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 799–825. PubMedCrossRef Hirsch, C. R., & Clark, D. M. (2004). Information-processing bias in social phobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 799–825. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hirsch, C. R., & Mathews, A. (2000). Impaired positive inferential bias in social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 705–712. PubMedCrossRef Hirsch, C. R., & Mathews, A. (2000). Impaired positive inferential bias in social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 705–712. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hofmann, S. G. (2007). Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: A comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36, 195–209. CrossRef Hofmann, S. G. (2007). Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: A comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36, 195–209. CrossRef
go back to reference Kim, H. S. (2001). Memory bias in subtypes of social phobia. Unpublished master dissertation, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. Kim, H. S. (2001). Memory bias in subtypes of social phobia. Unpublished master dissertation, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
go back to reference Kistner, J., Balthazor, M., Risi, S., & David, C. (2001). Adolescents’ perceptions of peer acceptance: Is dysphoria associated with greater realism? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 66–81. CrossRef Kistner, J., Balthazor, M., Risi, S., & David, C. (2001). Adolescents’ perceptions of peer acceptance: Is dysphoria associated with greater realism? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 66–81. CrossRef
go back to reference Lange, W.-G., Keijsers, G., Becker, E. S., & Rinck, M. (2008). Social anxiety and evaluation of social crowds: Explicit and implicit measures. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 932–943. PubMedCrossRef Lange, W.-G., Keijsers, G., Becker, E. S., & Rinck, M. (2008). Social anxiety and evaluation of social crowds: Explicit and implicit measures. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 932–943. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lange, W.-G., Heuer, K., Langner, O., Keijsers, G. P. J., Becker, E. S., & Rinck, M. (2011). Face value: Eye movements and the evaluation of facial crowds in social anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 355–363. PubMedCrossRef Lange, W.-G., Heuer, K., Langner, O., Keijsers, G. P. J., Becker, E. S., & Rinck, M. (2011). Face value: Eye movements and the evaluation of facial crowds in social anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 355–363. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lee, T. H., Lee, K. Y., Lee, K., Choi, J. S., & Kim, H. T. (2006). The Korea University facial expression collection: KUFEC. Lab of Behavioral Neuroscience. Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. Lee, T. H., Lee, K. Y., Lee, K., Choi, J. S., & Kim, H. T. (2006). The Korea University facial expression collection: KUFEC. Lab of Behavioral Neuroscience. Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
go back to reference Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1994). Cognitive approaches to emotion and emotional disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 25–50. PubMedCrossRef Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1994). Cognitive approaches to emotion and emotional disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 25–50. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455–470. PubMedCrossRef Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455–470. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mayfrank, L., Kimmig, H., & Fischer, B. (1987). The role of attention in the preparation of visually guided saccadic eye movements in man. In J. K. O’Regan & A. Levy-Schoen (Eds.), Eye movements: From physiology to cognition (pp. 37–45). New York, NY: North-Holland. Mayfrank, L., Kimmig, H., & Fischer, B. (1987). The role of attention in the preparation of visually guided saccadic eye movements in man. In J. K. O’Regan & A. Levy-Schoen (Eds.), Eye movements: From physiology to cognition (pp. 37–45). New York, NY: North-Holland.
go back to reference Pelli, D. G. (1997). The videotoolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into moves. Spatial Vision, 10, 437–442. PubMedCrossRef Pelli, D. G. (1997). The videotoolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into moves. Spatial Vision, 10, 437–442. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Peters, L. (2000). Discriminant validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 943–950. PubMedCrossRef Peters, L. (2000). Discriminant validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 943–950. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pinto-Gouveia, J., Cunha, M. I., & Salvador, M. C. (2003). Assessment of social phobia by self-report questionnaires: The Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale and the Social Phobia Safety Behaviours Scale. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 31, 291–311. CrossRef Pinto-Gouveia, J., Cunha, M. I., & Salvador, M. C. (2003). Assessment of social phobia by self-report questionnaires: The Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale and the Social Phobia Safety Behaviours Scale. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 31, 291–311. CrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210. PubMedCrossRef Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wichmann, F. A., & Hill, N. J. (2001a). The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1293–1313. CrossRef Wichmann, F. A., & Hill, N. J. (2001a). The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1293–1313. CrossRef
go back to reference Wichmann, F. A., & Hill, N. J. (2001b). The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1314–1329. CrossRef Wichmann, F. A., & Hill, N. J. (2001b). The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling. Perception & Psychophysics, 63, 1314–1329. CrossRef
go back to reference Yoon, K. L., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2007). Threat is in the eye of the beholder: Social anxiety and the interpretation of neutral facial expressions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 839–847. PubMedCrossRef Yoon, K. L., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2007). Threat is in the eye of the beholder: Social anxiety and the interpretation of neutral facial expressions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 839–847. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yoon, K. L., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2008). Interpreting neutral faces as threatening: A default mode for social anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 680–685. PubMedCrossRef Yoon, K. L., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2008). Interpreting neutral faces as threatening: A default mode for social anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 680–685. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Accurate but Pathological: Social Anxiety and Ensemble Coding of Emotion
Auteurs
Jae-Won Yang
K. Lira Yoon
Sang Chul Chong
Kyung Ja Oh
Publicatiedatum
01-06-2013
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 3/2013
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9500-5