Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

15-02-2016

Aberrant Parasympathetic Stress Responsivity in Pure and Co-Occurring Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Auteurs: Katharina Kircanski, Christian E. Waugh, M. Catalina Camacho, Ian H. Gotlib

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 1/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are highly comorbid; we know little, however, about the shared physiological features of these disorders. In the present study, we examined whether aberrant parasympathetic stress responsivity represents a transdiagnostic process in MDD, GAD, and co-occurring MDD-GAD. Adult women diagnosed with MDD only, GAD only, and co-occurring MDD-GAD and never-disordered controls (CTLs) completed a standardized laboratory task that involved anticipating, confronting, and recovering from a social stressor. Participants’ levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured to index parasympathetic responses. The three clinical groups combined (participants with MDD only, GAD only, and co-occurring MDD-GAD) exhibited a similar pattern of RSA responsivity that differed significantly from that of the CTL group. Specifically, whereas CTL participants exhibited a sharp decrease in RSA when confronting the stressor and a sharp increase in RSA when recovering immediately following the stressor, the clinical participants exhibited a blunted response pattern that involved weaker fluctuations in RSA when confronting and recovering from the stressor. There were no significant differences among the three clinical groups in RSA responses. Interestingly, clinical and CTL participants did not differ in self-reported fluctuations in negative emotional arousal. Finally, for clinical participants patterns of RSA reactivity to the acute stressor were associated differentially with trait rumination and worry as maladaptive forms of emotion regulation. These findings support the formulation that aberrant parasympathetic stress responsivity is a shared feature of MDD, GAD, and co-occurring MDD-GAD that is characterized by diminished reactivity to and recovery from stress.
Voetnoten
1
Indeed, within our MDD-GAD group, in 40% of cases GAD preceded MDD; in 30% of cases MDD preceded GAD; in 10% of cases MDD and GAD started at the same time; and in 20% of cases participants stated that they were unable to report with precision their relative timing of onset. Consistent with our multilevel model across the three clinical groups, we ran the multilevel model of RSA stress responsivity in the MDD-GAD group only in order to examine whether there were any differences between participants for whom GAD preceded MDD and for whom GAD occurred in the context of MDD (using a Level 2 variable dummy-coded as 0 or 1). There were no significant differences between these two subgroups in any of the RSA measures, all ps > .523.
 
2
We re-ran our analyses comparing RSA stress responsivity across the clinical groups while controlling for the presence of other DSM-IV anxiety disorders (Specific Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). The presence of other anxiety disorders was not significantly associated with any of the RSA measures, all ps > .484, and no new significant differences emerged among the clinical groups in any of the RSA measures, all ps > .102.
 
3
There were no new significant results of these models when we included the covariates used in the models of RSA stress responsivity.
 
4
The multilevel models for NA, both across all four groups and across the three clinical groups only, did not converge when all of the Level 2 equations included random effect terms and required removal of one of these random effects in order to converge. We elected to remove the random effect term for the final recovery period, as across the NA models this period was associated with the lowest proportion of total variance of explained.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Aldao, A., & Mennin, D. S. (2012). Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(2), 122–130.PubMedCrossRef Aldao, A., & Mennin, D. S. (2012). Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(2), 122–130.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Aldao, A., Mennin, D. S., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2013). Differentiating worry and rumination: evidence from heart rate variability during spontaneous emotion regulation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 613–619.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Aldao, A., Mennin, D. S., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2013). Differentiating worry and rumination: evidence from heart rate variability during spontaneous emotion regulation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 613–619.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR). American Psychiatric Publishing. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR). American Psychiatric Publishing.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Publishing. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Publishing.
go back to reference Andrews, G., Hobbs, M. J., Borkovec, T. D., Beesdo, K., Craske, M. G., Heimberg, R. G., & Stanley, M. A. (2010). Generalized worry disorder: a review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27(2), 134–147.PubMedCrossRef Andrews, G., Hobbs, M. J., Borkovec, T. D., Beesdo, K., Craske, M. G., Heimberg, R. G., & Stanley, M. A. (2010). Generalized worry disorder: a review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27(2), 134–147.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ballenger, J. C., Davidson, J. R., Lecrubier, Y., Nutt, D. J., Borkovec, T. D., Rickels, K., & Wittchen, H. U. (2001). Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 11), 53–58.PubMed Ballenger, J. C., Davidson, J. R., Lecrubier, Y., Nutt, D. J., Borkovec, T. D., Rickels, K., & Wittchen, H. U. (2001). Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 11), 53–58.PubMed
go back to reference Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35(2), 205–230.CrossRef Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35(2), 205–230.CrossRef
go back to reference Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J. (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68(3), 255–278.CrossRef Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J. (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68(3), 255–278.CrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Berntson, G. G., Bigger, J. T., Eckberg, D. L., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P. G., Malik, M., & van der Molen, M. W. (1997). Heart rate variability: origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 623–648.PubMedCrossRef Berntson, G. G., Bigger, J. T., Eckberg, D. L., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P. G., Malik, M., & van der Molen, M. W. (1997). Heart rate variability: origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 623–648.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, T. A., Antony, M. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1992). Psychometric properties of the penn state worry questionnaire in a clinical anxiety disorders sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30(1), 33–37.PubMedCrossRef Brown, T. A., Antony, M. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1992). Psychometric properties of the penn state worry questionnaire in a clinical anxiety disorders sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30(1), 33–37.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, T. A., Campbell, L. A., Lehman, C. L., Grisham, J. R., & Mancill, R. B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 585–599.PubMedCrossRef Brown, T. A., Campbell, L. A., Lehman, C. L., Grisham, J. R., & Mancill, R. B. (2001). Current and lifetime comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders in a large clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(4), 585–599.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Butler, E. A., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J. (2006). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction. Psychophysiology, 43(6), 612–622.PubMedCrossRef Butler, E. A., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J. (2006). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction. Psychophysiology, 43(6), 612–622.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bylsma, L. M., Salomon, K., Taylor-Clift, A., Morris, B. H., & Rottenberg, J. (2014). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity in current and remitted major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76(1), 66–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Bylsma, L. M., Salomon, K., Taylor-Clift, A., Morris, B. H., & Rottenberg, J. (2014). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity in current and remitted major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76(1), 66–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Chang, H.-A., Chang, C.-C., Tzeng, N.-S., Kuo, T. B. J., Lu, R.-B., & Huang, S.-Y. (2013). Generalized anxiety disorder, comorbid major depression and heart rate variability: a case–control study in Taiwan. Psychiatry Investigation, 10(4), 326–335.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Chang, H.-A., Chang, C.-C., Tzeng, N.-S., Kuo, T. B. J., Lu, R.-B., & Huang, S.-Y. (2013). Generalized anxiety disorder, comorbid major depression and heart rate variability: a case–control study in Taiwan. Psychiatry Investigation, 10(4), 326–335.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 316–336.PubMedCrossRef Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 316–336.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Conway, C. C., Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2012). Expanding stress generation theory: test of a transdiagnostic model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(3), 754–766.PubMedCrossRef Conway, C. C., Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2012). Expanding stress generation theory: test of a transdiagnostic model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(3), 754–766.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 355–391.PubMedCrossRef Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 355–391.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dozois, D. J. A., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the beck depression inventory-II. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 83–89.CrossRef Dozois, D. J. A., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the beck depression inventory-II. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 83–89.CrossRef
go back to reference Dugas, M. J., Anderson, K. G., Deschenes, S. S., & Donegan, E. (2010). Generalized anxiety disorder publications: where do we stand a decade later? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(7), 780–784.PubMedCrossRef Dugas, M. J., Anderson, K. G., Deschenes, S. S., & Donegan, E. (2010). Generalized anxiety disorder publications: where do we stand a decade later? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(7), 780–784.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ehring, T., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(3), 192–205. CrossRef Ehring, T., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(3), 192–205. CrossRef
go back to reference First, M. B., Spitzer, R., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. (1996). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders-clinician version (SCID-CV). Washington: American Psychiatric Press. First, M. B., Spitzer, R., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. (1996). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders-clinician version (SCID-CV). Washington: American Psychiatric Press.
go back to reference Gorwood, P. (2004). Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder comorbidity: an example of genetic pleiotropy? European Psychiatry, 19(1), 27–33.PubMedCrossRef Gorwood, P. (2004). Generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder comorbidity: an example of genetic pleiotropy? European Psychiatry, 19(1), 27–33.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hofmann, S. G., Schulz, S. M., Heering, S., Muench, F., & Bufka, L. F. (2010). Psychophysiological correlates of generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbid depression. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 78(1), 35–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hofmann, S. G., Schulz, S. M., Heering, S., Muench, F., & Bufka, L. F. (2010). Psychophysiological correlates of generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbid depression. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 78(1), 35–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hopp, H., Shallcross, A. J., Ford, B. Q., Troy, A. S., Wilhelm, F. H., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). High cardiac vagal control protects against future depressive symptoms under conditions of high social support. Biological Psychology, 93(1), 143–149.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hopp, H., Shallcross, A. J., Ford, B. Q., Troy, A. S., Wilhelm, F. H., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). High cardiac vagal control protects against future depressive symptoms under conditions of high social support. Biological Psychology, 93(1), 143–149.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Insel, T. (2013). Transforming diagnosis. USA: National Institute of Mental Health. Insel, T. (2013). Transforming diagnosis. USA: National Institute of Mental Health.
go back to reference Kemp, A. H., Quintana, D. S., Gray, M. A., Felmingham, K. L., Brown, K., & Gatt, J. M. (2010). Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: a review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 67(11), 1067–1074.PubMedCrossRef Kemp, A. H., Quintana, D. S., Gray, M. A., Felmingham, K. L., Brown, K., & Gatt, J. M. (2010). Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: a review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 67(11), 1067–1074.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kemp, A. H., Quintana, D. S., Felmingham, K. L., Matthews, S., & Jelinek, H. F. (2012). Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: Implications for cardiovascular risk. PLoS ONE, 7(2). Kemp, A. H., Quintana, D. S., Felmingham, K. L., Matthews, S., & Jelinek, H. F. (2012). Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: Implications for cardiovascular risk. PLoS ONE, 7(2).
go back to reference Kendler, K. S., Hettema, J. M., Butera, F., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 789–796.PubMedCrossRef Kendler, K. S., Hettema, J. M., Butera, F., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 789–796.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., DuPont, R. L., Berglund, P., & Wittchen, H. U. (1999). Impairment in pure and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depression at 12 months in two national surveys. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(12), 1915–1923.PubMed Kessler, R. C., DuPont, R. L., Berglund, P., & Wittchen, H. U. (1999). Impairment in pure and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depression at 12 months in two national surveys. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(12), 1915–1923.PubMed
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., & National Comorbidity Survey Replication. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(23), 3095–3105.PubMedCrossRef Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., & National Comorbidity Survey Replication. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(23), 3095–3105.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005a). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–602.PubMedCrossRef Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005a). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–602.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005b). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005b). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “Trier social stress test”–a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28(1–2), 76–81.PubMedCrossRef Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “Trier social stress test”–a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28(1–2), 76–81.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Knutson, B., Taylor, J., Kaufman, M., Peterson, R., & Glover, G. (2005). Distributed neural representation of expected value. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(19), 4806–4812.PubMedCrossRef Knutson, B., Taylor, J., Kaufman, M., Peterson, R., & Glover, G. (2005). Distributed neural representation of expected value. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(19), 4806–4812.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Reinterpreting comorbidity: a model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2, 111–133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Reinterpreting comorbidity: a model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2, 111–133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Lawrence, A. E., Liverant, G. I., Rosellini, A. J., & Brown, T. A. (2009). Generalized anxiety disorder within the course of major depressive disorder: examining the utility of the DSM IV hierarchy rule. Depression and Anxiety, 26(10), 909–916.PubMedCrossRef Lawrence, A. E., Liverant, G. I., Rosellini, A. J., & Brown, T. A. (2009). Generalized anxiety disorder within the course of major depressive disorder: examining the utility of the DSM IV hierarchy rule. Depression and Anxiety, 26(10), 909–916.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Licht, C. M. M., de Geus, E. J. C., Zitman, F. G., Hoogendijk, W. J. G., van Dyck, R., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2008). Association between major depressive disorder and heart rate variability in the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA). Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(12), 1358–1367.PubMedCrossRef Licht, C. M. M., de Geus, E. J. C., Zitman, F. G., Hoogendijk, W. J. G., van Dyck, R., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2008). Association between major depressive disorder and heart rate variability in the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA). Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(12), 1358–1367.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Licht, C. M. M., de Geus, E. J. C., van Dyck, R., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2009). Association between anxiety disorders and heart rate variability in the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(5), 508–518.PubMedCrossRef Licht, C. M. M., de Geus, E. J. C., van Dyck, R., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2009). Association between anxiety disorders and heart rate variability in the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(5), 508–518.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Llera, S. J., & Newman, M. G. (2010). Effects of worry on physiological and subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli in generalized anxiety disorder and nonanxious control participants. Emotion, 10(5), 640–650.PubMedCrossRef Llera, S. J., & Newman, M. G. (2010). Effects of worry on physiological and subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli in generalized anxiety disorder and nonanxious control participants. Emotion, 10(5), 640–650.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lyonfields, J. D., Borkovec, T. D., & Thayer, J. F. (1995). Vagal tone in generalized anxiety disorder and the effects of aversive imagery and worrisome thinking. Behavior Therapy, 26(3), 457–466.CrossRef Lyonfields, J. D., Borkovec, T. D., & Thayer, J. F. (1995). Vagal tone in generalized anxiety disorder and the effects of aversive imagery and worrisome thinking. Behavior Therapy, 26(3), 457–466.CrossRef
go back to reference McEvoy, P. M., Watson, H., Watkins, E. R., & Nathan, P. (2013). The relationship between worry, rumination, and comorbidity: evidence for repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic construct. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 313–320.PubMedCrossRef McEvoy, P. M., Watson, H., Watkins, E. R., & Nathan, P. (2013). The relationship between worry, rumination, and comorbidity: evidence for repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic construct. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 313–320.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the penn state worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 487–495.PubMedCrossRef Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the penn state worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 487–495.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Newman, M. G., & Llera, S. J. (2011). A novel theory of experiential avoidance in generalized anxiety disorder: a review and synthesis of research supporting a contrast avoidance model of worry. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(3), 371–382.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Newman, M. G., & Llera, S. J. (2011). A novel theory of experiential avoidance in generalized anxiety disorder: a review and synthesis of research supporting a contrast avoidance model of worry. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(3), 371–382.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Newman, M. G., Zuellig, A. R., Kachin, K. E., Constantino, M. J., Przeworski, A., Erickson, T., & Cashman-McGrath, L. (2002). Preliminary reliability and validity of the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire-IV: a revised self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 33(2), 215–233.CrossRef Newman, M. G., Zuellig, A. R., Kachin, K. E., Constantino, M. J., Przeworski, A., Erickson, T., & Cashman-McGrath, L. (2002). Preliminary reliability and validity of the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire-IV: a revised self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 33(2), 215–233.CrossRef
go back to reference Newman, M. G., Llera, S. J., Erickson, T. M., Przeworski, A., & Castonguay, L. G. (2013). Worry and generalized anxiety disorder: a review and theoretical synthesis of evidence on nature, etiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 275–297.PubMedCrossRef Newman, M. G., Llera, S. J., Erickson, T. M., Przeworski, A., & Castonguay, L. G. (2013). Worry and generalized anxiety disorder: a review and theoretical synthesis of evidence on nature, etiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 275–297.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115–121.PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115–121.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424.PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pittig, A., Arch, J. J., Lam, C. W. R., & Craske, M. G. (2013). Heart rate and heart rate variability in panic, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and generalized anxiety disorders at baseline and in response to relaxation and hyperventilation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 87(1), 19–27.PubMedCrossRef Pittig, A., Arch, J. J., Lam, C. W. R., & Craske, M. G. (2013). Heart rate and heart rate variability in panic, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and generalized anxiety disorders at baseline and in response to relaxation and hyperventilation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 87(1), 19–27.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Porges, S. W. (1995). Orienting in a defensive world: mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage. A polyvagal rheory. Psychophysiology, 32(4), 301–318.PubMedCrossRef Porges, S. W. (1995). Orienting in a defensive world: mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage. A polyvagal rheory. Psychophysiology, 32(4), 301–318.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Porges, S. W. (1997). Emotion: an evolutionary by-product of the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807, 62–77.PubMedCrossRef Porges, S. W. (1997). Emotion: an evolutionary by-product of the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807, 62–77.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., Portales, A. L., & Greenspan, S. I. (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “brake” predicts child behavior problems: a psychobiological model of social behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 29(8), 697–712.PubMedCrossRef Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., Portales, A. L., & Greenspan, S. I. (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “brake” predicts child behavior problems: a psychobiological model of social behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 29(8), 697–712.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
go back to reference Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM (Version 6) [Computer software]. Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM (Version 6) [Computer software].
go back to reference Rodebaugh, T. L., Holaway, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2008). The factor structure and dimensional scoring of the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire for DSM-IV. Assessment, 15(3), 343–350.PubMedCrossRef Rodebaugh, T. L., Holaway, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (2008). The factor structure and dimensional scoring of the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire for DSM-IV. Assessment, 15(3), 343–350.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rottenberg, J. (2007). Cardiac vagal control in depression: a critical analysis. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 200–211.PubMedCrossRef Rottenberg, J. (2007). Cardiac vagal control in depression: a critical analysis. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 200–211.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rottenberg, J., Wilhelm, F. H., Gross, J. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2003). Vagal rebound during resolution of tearful crying among depressed and nondepressed individuals. Psychophysiology, 40(1), 1–6.PubMedCrossRef Rottenberg, J., Wilhelm, F. H., Gross, J. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2003). Vagal rebound during resolution of tearful crying among depressed and nondepressed individuals. Psychophysiology, 40(1), 1–6.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rottenberg, J., Clift, A., Bolden, S., & Salomon, K. (2007). RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder. Psychophysiology, 44(3), 450–458.PubMedCrossRef Rottenberg, J., Clift, A., Bolden, S., & Salomon, K. (2007). RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder. Psychophysiology, 44(3), 450–458.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Salomon, K. (2005). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during stress predicts resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia 3 years later in a pediatric sample. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 24(1), 68–76.CrossRef Salomon, K. (2005). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during stress predicts resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia 3 years later in a pediatric sample. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 24(1), 68–76.CrossRef
go back to reference Snijders, T. A. B. (2005). Power and sample size in multilevel modeling. In B. S. Everitt & D. C. Howell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science (Vol. 3, pp. 1570–1573). Chichester: Wiley. Snijders, T. A. B. (2005). Power and sample size in multilevel modeling. In B. S. Everitt & D. C. Howell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science (Vol. 3, pp. 1570–1573). Chichester: Wiley.
go back to reference Thayer, J. F., Friedman, B. H., & Borkovec, T. D. (1996). Autonomic characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder and worry. Biological Psychiatry, 39(4), 255–266.PubMedCrossRef Thayer, J. F., Friedman, B. H., & Borkovec, T. D. (1996). Autonomic characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder and worry. Biological Psychiatry, 39(4), 255–266.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.CrossRef Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: a psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.CrossRef
go back to reference Wilhelm, F. H., Grossman, P., & Roth, W. T. (1999). Analysis of cardiovascular regulation. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 35, 135–140.PubMed Wilhelm, F. H., Grossman, P., & Roth, W. T. (1999). Analysis of cardiovascular regulation. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 35, 135–140.PubMed
go back to reference Wittchen, H. U. I., Carter, R., Pfister, H., Montgomery, S., & Kessler, R. (2000). Disabilities and quality of life in pure and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depression in a national survey. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15(6), 319–328.PubMedCrossRef Wittchen, H. U. I., Carter, R., Pfister, H., Montgomery, S., & Kessler, R. (2000). Disabilities and quality of life in pure and comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and major depression in a national survey. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15(6), 319–328.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Woody, M. L., McGeary, J. E., & Gibb, B. E. (2014). Brooding rumination and heart rate variability in women at high and low risk for depression: group differences and moderation by COMT genotype. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(1), 61–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Woody, M. L., McGeary, J. E., & Gibb, B. E. (2014). Brooding rumination and heart rate variability in women at high and low risk for depression: group differences and moderation by COMT genotype. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(1), 61–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Zimmerman, M., & Chelminski, I. (2003). Clinician recognition of anxiety disorders in depressed outpatients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 37(4), 325–333.PubMedCrossRef Zimmerman, M., & Chelminski, I. (2003). Clinician recognition of anxiety disorders in depressed outpatients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 37(4), 325–333.PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Aberrant Parasympathetic Stress Responsivity in Pure and Co-Occurring Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Auteurs
Katharina Kircanski
Christian E. Waugh
M. Catalina Camacho
Ian H. Gotlib
Publicatiedatum
15-02-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 1/2016
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-015-9493-y

Andere artikelen Uitgave 1/2016

Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 1/2016 Naar de uitgave