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09-02-2021 | Original Article Open Access

A Two-to-Five Year Follow-Up of a Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Cohort

Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Caroline Gromark, Eva Hesselmark, Ida Gebel Djupedal, Maria Silverberg, AnnaCarin Horne, Robert A. Harris, Eva Serlachius, David Mataix-Cols
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Supplementary Information

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10578-021-01135-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Little is known about the long-term prognosis of children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Out of the 46 eligible patients from the Karolinska PANS cohort, 34 consented to participate in a follow-up (median 3.3 years). Participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation and were classified according to their clinical course. Resulting groups were compared on clinical characteristics and laboratory test results. We observed significant reductions in clinician-rated PANS symptom severity and improved general function. Two patients were classified as remitted, 20 as relapsing–remitting, and 12 as having a chronic-static/progressive course. The latter group had an earlier onset, greater impairment and received more pharmacological and psychological treatments. Although remission was rare, the majority of children with PANS were significantly improved over the follow-up period but a non-negligible minority of patients displayed a chronic-static/progressive course and required additional treatments. The proposed definitions of flare and clinical course may be useful in future clinical trials.

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