Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Depressive rumination has been found to be a critical factor in the onset and maintenance of depression [for a recent review, see Nolen-Hoeksema, In C. Papageorgiou, & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory, and treatment (pp. 107–124). Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2004], but an issue still to be resolved is whether some aspects of depressive rumination are more damaging than others. Some studies have found depressive rumination to have a single factor, others describe several dimensions. This study addresses (a) whether a single or multi-factorial model is most appropriate, and if so, (b) which aspect of depressive rumination is the most pathological. In Study One, a measure of depressive rumination, the Rumination on Sadness Scale (RSS; Conway, Csank, Holm, & Blake, Journal of Personality Assessment, 75, 404–425, 2000), was given to 152 students (128 women). Reliability and validity for the RSS was corroborated. The RSS was then used to further investigate the multi-component nature of depressive rumination. Confirmatory Factor Analyses on the RSS revealed a three-factor solution; “ruminating about the reasons for my sadness” (Causal Analysis), “ruminating about the meaning of my sadness” (Understanding), and “uncontrollability of this ruminative thinking on my sadness” (Uncontrollability). In order to strengthen the three subscales, eight new items were added. Four items of the original RSS were deleted. In Study 2, using this extended scale (Leuven Adaptation of the Rumination on Sadness Scale; LARSS), the three-factor model was replicated in a second sample (N = 219). Depressive symptoms and the tendency to suppress negative thinking (Wenzlaff & Luxton, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 293–308, 2003) were associated with Uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Results confirm the importance of distinguishing different components in depressive rumination and tentatively suggest that the meta-ruminative factor, uncontrollability of rumination, is particularly problematic.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Barker, C., Pistrang, N., & Elliott, R. (2002). Research methods in clinical psychology (2nd ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy for depression. New York: Guilford Press.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Confirmatory factor analysis. In K. A. Bollen (Ed.), Structural equations with latent variables (pp. 226–318). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bouman, T. K., Luteijn, F., Albersnagel, F. A., & van der Ploeg, F. A. E. (1985). Enige ervaringen met de Beck Depression Inventory [Some experiences with the Beck Depression Inventory]. Gedrag, 13, 13–24.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen, & J. S. Lang (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Conway, M., Mendelson, M., Giannopoulos, C., Csank, P. A. R., & Holm, S. L. (2004). Childhood and adult sexual abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 393–410. CrossRef
Fresco, D. M., Frankel, A. N., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., & Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: The relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 179–188. CrossRef
Fritz, H. L. (1999). Rumination and adjustment to a first coronary event. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 105.
Hermans, D., Crombez, G., van Rijsoort, S., & Laeremans, I. (2002). De meta-cognities Vragenlijst [The Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire]. Gedragstherapie, 35, 341–352.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL ® 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.
Kerkhof, A., Hermans, D., Figee, A., Laeremans, I., Aardema, A., & Pieters, G. (2000). De Penn State Worry Questionnaire en de Worry Domains Questionnaire: Eerste resultaten bij Nederlandse en Vlaamse klinische en poliklinische populaties. [The PSWQ and the WDQ: first results from Dutch and Flemish clinical and polyclinical populations]. Gedragstherapie, 33, 135–145.
Luminet, O. (2004). Measurement of depressive rumination and associated constructs. In C. Papageorgiou, & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory, and treatment (pp. 187–216). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Martin, L. L., & Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In R. Wyer Jr. (Ed.), Ruminative thoughts: Advances in social cognition (Vol. 11, pp. 1–47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). The response styles theory. In C. Papageorgiou, & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory, and treatment (pp. 107–124). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1993). The effects of rumination and distraction on naturally-occurring depressed moods. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 561–570. CrossRef
Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (1999). Process and meta-cognitive dimensions of depressive and anxious thoughts and relationships with emotional intensity. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 6, 156–162. CrossRef
Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2001). Positive beliefs about depressive rumination: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale. Behavior Therapy, 32, 13–26. CrossRef
Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2003a). Rumination and depression: Advances in theory and research. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 243–245. CrossRef
Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2003b). An empirical test of a clinical metacognitive model of rumination and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 261–273. CrossRef
Papageorgiou, C., & Wells, A. (2004). Nature, functions, and beliefs about depressive rumination. In C. Papageorgiou, & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination: Nature, theory, and treatment (pp. 3–20). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Raes, F., Hermans, D., & Eelen P. (2003). De Nederlandstalige versie van de Ruminative Response Scale (RRS-NL) en de Rumination on Sadness Scale (RRS-NL). [The Dutch version of the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS-NL) and the Rumination on Sadness Scale (RRS-NL)]. Gedragstherapie, 36, 97–104.
Ramel, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E., & McQuaid, J. R. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 433–455. CrossRef
Roberts, J. E., Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1998). Ruminative response style and vulnerability to episodes of dysphoria: Gender, neuroticism, and episode duration. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 401–423. CrossRef
Segerstrom, S. C., Tsao, J. C. I., Alden, L. E., & Craske, M. G. (2000). Worry and rumination: Repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 671–688. CrossRef
Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180. CrossRef
Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. CrossRef
Van Rijsoort, S., Vervaeke, G., & Emmelkamp, P. (1997). De Penn State Worry Questionnaire en de Worry Domains Questionnaire: Eerste resultaten bij een normale Nederlandse populatie. [The Penn State Worry Questionnaire and the Worry Domains Questionnaire: First results in a normal Dutch population]. Gedragstherapie, 30, 121–128.
Wegner, D. M., & Wenzlaff, R. M. (1996). Mental control. In E. T. Higgins, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 466–492). New York: Guilford Press.
Wenzlaff, R. M., & Luxton, D. D. (2003). The role of thought suppression in depressive rumination. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 293–308. CrossRef
Wenzlaff, R. M., Rude, S. S., Taylor, C. J., Stultz, C. H., & Sweatt, R. A. (2001). Beneath the veil of thought suppression: Attentional bias and depression risk. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 435–548. CrossRef
Wyer R. S. Jr. (Ed.) (1996). Ruminative thoughts: Advances in social cognition (Vol. IX). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- A “Triple W”-Model of Rumination on Sadness: Why Am I Feeling Sad, What’s the Meaning of My Sadness, and Wish I Could Stop Thinking About my Sadness (But I Can’t!)
J. Mark G. Williams
- Springer US