Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0352-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Early secure attachment plays a key role in socialization by inaugurating a long-term mutual positive, collaborative interpersonal orientation within the parent-child dyad. We report findings from Family Study (community mothers, fathers, and children, from age 2 to 12, N = 102, 51 girls) and Play Study (exclusively low-income mothers and children, from age 3.5 to 7, N = 186, 90 girls). We examined links among observed secure attachment at toddler age, child and parent receptive, willing stance to each other, observed in parent-child contexts at early school age, and developmental outcomes. The developmental outcomes included parent-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed positive mutuality with regard to conflict issues at age 12 in Family Study, and mother-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed child regard for rules and moral self at age 7 in Play Study. In mother-child relationships, the child’s willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on positive mutuality in Family Study and on all outcomes in Play Study. In father-child relationships, both the child’s and the parent’s willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on both outcomes. Early security initiates an adaptive developmental cascade by enlisting the child and the parent as active, willingly receptive and cooperative agents in the socialization process. Implications for children’s parenting interventions are noted.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
ESM 1 (DOCX 41 kb)10802_2017_352_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S. M., & Stayton, D. J. (1971). Individual differences in strange situation behavior of one-year-olds. In H. R. Schaffer (Ed.), The origins of human social relations (pp. 17–57). London: Academic Press.
Allen, J. P., McElhaney, K. B., Land, D. J., Kuperminc, G. P., Moore, C. W., O’Beirne-Kelly, H., & Liebman Kilmer, S. (2003). A secure base in adolescence: Markers of attachment security in the mother–adolescent relationship. Child Development, 74, 292–307. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00536. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Allen, J. P., McElhaney, K. B., Kuperminc, G. P., & Jodl, K. M. (2004). Stability and change in attachment security across adolescence. Child Development, 75, 1792–1805. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00817.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Bandura, A., & Walters, R.H. (1963). Social learning and personality development . New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Bates, J. E., Schermerhorn, A. C., & Petersen, I. T. (2012). Temperament and parenting in developmental perspective. In M. Zentner & R. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of temperament (pp. 425–441). New York: Guilford Press.
Boldt, L. J., Kochanska, G., Yoon, J. E., & Nordling, J. K. (2014). Children’s attachment to both parents from toddler age to middle childhood: Links to adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Attachment & Human Development, 16, 211–229. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2014.889181. CrossRef
Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss. (Vol. 1). 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.
Bretherton, I., Golby, B., & Cho, E. (1997). Attachment and the transmission of values. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 103–134). New York: Wiley.
Bugental, D. B., & Johnston, C. (2000). Parental and child cognitions in the context of the family. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 315–344. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.315. CrossRefPubMed
Cassidy, J. (2008). The nature of the child’s ties. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 3–22). New York: Guilford.
Clark, M. S. (1984). Record keeping in two types of relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 549–557. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2069. CrossRefPubMed
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558–577. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.558. CrossRefPubMed
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 3, 2nd ed., pp. 503–541). Hoboken: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S., Losoya, S., Murphy, B. C., et al. (2000). Prediction of elementary school children’s externalizing problem behaviors from attentional and behavioral regulation and negative emotionality. Child Development, 71, 1367–1382. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00233. CrossRefPubMed
Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., Goldstein, L. H., Armstrong, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., & Kupfer, D. J. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social and academic difficulties in middle childhood. II: Developing the MacArthur health and behavior questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 588–603. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200205000-00017. CrossRef
Eyberg, S. M., & Bussing, R. (2010). Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with conduct problems. In R. C. Murrihy, A. D. Kidman, & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Clinical handbook of assessing and treating conduct problems in youth (pp. 139–162). New York: Springer.
Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2002). Child symptom Inventory-4: Screening and norms manual. Stony Brook: Checkmate Plus.
Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2008). Adolescent symptom Inventory-4 consolidated manual. Stony Brook: Checkmate Plus.
Gardner, F., Burton, J., & Klimes, I. (2006). Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: Outcomes and mechanisms of change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1123–1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01668.x. CrossRefPubMed
Grossmann, K., Grossmann, K. E., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Kindler, H., Scheuerer-Englisch, H., & Zimmermann, P. (2002). The uniqueness of the child-father attachment relationship: Fathers’ sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16-year longitudinal study. Social Development, 11, 307–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00202. CrossRef
Hawes, D. J., Dadds, M. R., Frost, A. D., J., & Hasking, P. A. (2011). Do childhood callous- unemotional traits drive change in parenting practices? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology , 40, 507–518. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.581624.
Hayes, A. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hoyle, R. H., & Robinson, J. I. (2003). Mediated and moderated effects in social psychological research: Measurement, design, and analysis issues. In C. Sansone, C. C. Morf, & A. T. Panter (Eds.), Handbook of methods in social psychology (pp. 213–233). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Kochanska, G., Koenig, J. L., Barry, R. A., Kim, S., & Yoon, J. E. (2010a). Children’s conscience during toddler and preschool years, moral self, and a competent, adaptive developmental trajectory. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1320–1332. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020381. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kochanska, G., Woodard, J., Kim, S., Koenig, J. L., Yoon, J. E., & Barry, R. A. (2010b). Positive socialization mechanisms in secure and insecure parent–child dyads: Two longitudinal studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 998–1009. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02238.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kochanska, G., Kim, S., & Boldt, L. J. (2013a). Origins of children’s externalizing behavior problems in low-income families: Toddlers’ willing stance toward their mothers as the missing link. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 891–901. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000254. CrossRefPubMed
Kochanska, G., Kim, S., Boldt, L. J., & Nordling, J. K. (2013b). Promoting toddlers’ positive social-emotional outcomes in low-income families: A play-based experimental study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 700–712. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.782815. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kochanska, G., Kim, S., & Boldt, L. J. (2015). (positive) power to the child: The role of children’s willing stance toward parents in developmental cascades from toddler age to early preadolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 987–1005. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579415000644. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Laible, D. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Early socialization: A relationship perspective. In J. E. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 181–207). New York: Guilford Press.
Lipscomb, S. T., Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Ge, X., & Reiss, D. (2011). Trajectories of parenting and child negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood: A longitudinal analysis. Child Development, 82, 1661–1675. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01639.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478722. CrossRef
Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
Londerville, S., & Main, M. (1981). Security of attachment, compliance, and maternal training methods in the second year of life. Developmental Psychology, 17, 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.119. CrossRef
Lorber, M. F., & Egeland, B. (2011). Parenting and infant difficulty: Testing a mutual exacerbation hypothesis to predict early onset conduct problems. Child Development, 82, 2006–2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01652.x. CrossRefPubMed
Maccoby, E. E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006–1017. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1686. CrossRef
Marvin, R. S., Britner, P. A., & Russell, B. S. (2016). Normative development: The ontogeny of attachment in childhood. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 273–290). New York: Guilford Publications.
McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: A clinician’s guide to effective parent training. New York: Guilford Press.
Pardini, D. A., Waller, R., & Hawes, S. W. (2015). Familial influences on the development of serious conduct problems and delinquency. In J. Morizot & L. Kazemian (Eds.), The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior: Theory, research and practical applications (pp. 201–220). New York: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08720-7_13.
Pasalich, D. S., Dadds, M. R., Hawes, D. J., & Brennan, J. (2012). Attachment and callous-unemotional traits in children with early-onset conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 838–845. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02544.x. CrossRefPubMed
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.329. CrossRefPubMed
Pettit, G. S., & Arsiwalla, D. D. (2008). Commentary on special section on “bidirectional parent–child relationships”: The continuing evolution of dynamic, transactional models of parenting and youth behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 711–718. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9242-8. CrossRefPubMed
Reis, H. T., Clark, M. S., & Holmes, J. G. (2004). Perceived partner responsiveness as an organizing construct in the study of intimacy and closeness. In D. Mashek & A. Aron (Eds.), The handbook of closeness and intimacy (pp. 201–225). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Shaver, P. R., Mikulincer, M., Gross, J. T., Stern, J. A., & Cassidy, J. (2016). A lifespan perspective on attachment and care for others. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 878–916). New York: Guilford Publications.
Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 917–932. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000169. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 349–367. CrossRef
Sroufe, L. A. (2016). The place of attachment in development. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 997–1011). New York: Guilford Publications.
Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation from birth to adulthood. New York: Guilford Publications.
Thompson, R. A. (2006). The development of the person: Social understanding, relationships, conscience, self. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner, (Series Eds.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, pp. 24–98). New York: Wiley.
Thompson, R. A. (2013). Conscience development in early childhood. In M. Killen & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (2nd ed., pp. 73–92). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Thompson, R. A. (2015). Relationships, regulation, and early development. In M.E. Lamb & C. Garcia Coll (Eds.), Social, emotional, and personality development: Vol. 3. Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., pp. 201–246). Hoboken: Wiley.
Thompson, R. A. (2016). Early attachment and later development: Reframing the questions. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3nd ed., pp. 330–348). New York: Guilford Press.
Waters, E. (1987). Attachment Behavior Q-Set (Revision 3.0). Unpublished instrument, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Psychology.
Waters, E., & Deane, K. (1985). Defining and assessing individual differences in attachment relationships: Q-methodology and the organization of behavior in infancy and early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in the Child Development, 50, 41–65. https://doi.org/10.2307/3333826. CrossRef
Waters, E., Kondo-Ikemura, K., Posada, G., & Richters, J. E. (1990). Learning to love: Mechanisms and milestones. In M. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 217–255). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2011). The incredible years program for children from infancy to pre-adolescence: Prevention and treatment of behavior problems. In R. C. Murrihy, A. D. Kidman, & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Clinical handbook of assessing and treating conduct problems in youth (pp. 117–138). New York: Springer. CrossRef
- A Secure Base from which to Cooperate: Security, Child and Parent Willing Stance, and Adaptive and Maladaptive Outcomes in two Longitudinal Studies
Kathryn C. Goffin
Lea J. Boldt
- Springer US