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This paper reviews interactive technological approaches to improve mindfulness and fills a gap in the literature by using technology to target aspects of mindfulness that are missing in scientific research. Interactive approaches to train mindfulness are presented and discussed in relation to Bergomi’s conceptual mindfulness model and Vago and Silbersweig’s neurobiological approach for cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes. Based on existing interactive technologies, key design guidelines are developed to investigate the delivery of mindfulness by interactive media, including the design recommendations of personalization, gamification, and social features for the S-ART component intention and motivation; biofeedback training and narrative for emotion regulation; moral dilemmas, perspective taking, and cooperative design for prosociality; and explorative self-reflection, visualization and immersive feedback, and the integration of internal stimuli for self-transcendence. The paper recommends to apply a more extensive definition of mindfulness, which includes ethical and spiritual development. As a design premise for mindfulness technology, it is advised to strive for embodied experiences that adapt to the user’s internal state.
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- A Review of Interactive Technologies as Support Tools for the Cultivation of Mindfulness
Christian Martyn Jones
- Springer US