Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The present randomized pilot intervention study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based self-leadership training (MBSLT) specifically developed for academic achievement situations. Both mindfulness and self-leadership have a strong self-regulatory focus and are helpful in terms of stress resilience and performance enhancements. Based on several theoretical points of contact and a specific interplay between mindfulness and self-leadership, the authors developed an innovative intervention program that improves mood as well as performance in a real academic setting. The intervention was conducted as a randomized controlled study over 10 weeks. The purpose was to analyze the effects on perceived stress, test anxiety, academic self-efficacy, and the performance of students by comparing an intervention and control group (n = 109). Findings demonstrated significant effects on mindfulness, self-leadership, academic self-efficacy, and academic performance improvements in the intervention group. Results showed that the intervention group reached significantly better grade point averages than the control group. Moreover, the MBSLT over time led to a reduction of test anxiety in the intervention group compared to the control group. Furthermore, while participants of the control group showed an increase in stress over time, participants of the intervention group maintained constant stress levels over time. The combination of mindfulness and self-leadership addressed both positive effects on moods and on objective academic performance. The effects demonstrate the great potential of combining mindfulness with self-leadership to develop a healthy self-regulatory way of attaining achievement-related goals and succeeding in high-stress academic environments.
Andreßen, P., & Konradt, U. (2007). Messung von Selbstführung: Psychometrische Überprüfung der deutschsprachigen Version des Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 6(3), 117–128. CrossRef
Bamber, M. D., & Kraenzle Schneider, J. (2016). Mindfulness-based meditation to decrease stress and anxiety in college students: a narrative synthesis of the research. Educational Research Review, 18, 1–32. CrossRef
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 115–128. CrossRef
Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F., & Tice, D. M. (1994). Losing control: how and why people fail at self-regulation. San Diego: Academic Press.
Bewick, B., Koutsopoulou, G., Miles, J., Slaa, E., & Barkham, M. (2010). Changes in undergraduate students’ psychological well-being as they progress through university. Studies in Higher Education, 35(6), 633–645. CrossRef
Bishop, S., Lau, M., Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L., Anderson, M., Carmody, J., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Pocial Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. CrossRef
Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. CrossRef
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: a control theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag. CrossRef
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1994). Situational coping and coping dispositions in a stressful transaction. Journal of Personality and Pocial psychology, 66(1), 184–195. CrossRef
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2001). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Charoensukmongkol, P. (2014). Benefits of mindfulness meditation on emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy, and perceived stress: evidence from Thailand. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 16(3), 171–192. CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Schultz, P. P., & Niemiec, C. P. (2015). Being aware and functioning fully: mindfulness and interest-taking within self-determination theory. In K. W. Brown, J. D. Creswell, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness: theory, research, and practice (pp. 112–129). New York: Guilford Press.
European Commission. (2016). ECTS Users’ Guide. http://ec.europa.eu/education/ects/ects_en.htm. Accessed 6 Sept 2016
Federal Ministry of Teaching and Art Austria. (1974). Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10009375. Accessed 8 Sep 2016.
Felver, J. C., Celis-de Hoyos, C. E., Tezanos, K., & Singh, N. N. (2016). A systematic review of mindfulness-based interventions for youth in school settings. Mindfulness, 7(1), 34–45. CrossRef
Fliege, H., Rose, M., Arck, P., Levenstein, S., & Klapp, B. F. (2001). Validierung des “Perceived Stress Questionnaire” (PSQ) an einer deutschen Stichprobe. Diagnostica, 47(3), 142–152. CrossRef
Furtner, M. R., Sachse, P., & Exenberger, S. (2012). Learn to influence yourself: full range self-leadership training. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 38(2), 294–304.
Furtner, M. R., Rauthmann, J. F., & Sachse, P. (2015). Unique self-leadership: a bifactor model approach. Leadership, 11(1), 105–125. CrossRef
Furtner, M.R., Tutzer, L., & Sachse, P. (2017). The mindful self-leader: investigating relations between self-leadership and mindfulness. Social Behavior and Personality (in press).
Gallego, J., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Cangas, A. J., Langer, Á. I., & Mañas, I. (2014). Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 17(109), 1–6.
Gockel, A., Burton, D., James, S., & Bryer, E. (2013). Introducing mindfulness as a self-care and clinical training strategy for beginning social work students. Mindfulness, 4(4), 343–353. CrossRef
Gouda, S., Luong, M. T., Schmidt, S., & Bauer, J. (2016). Students and teachers benefit from mindfulness-based stress reduction in a school-embedded pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–18. CrossRef
Hall, P. D. (1999). The effect of meditation on the academic performance of african american college students. Journal of Black Studies, 29(3), 408–415. CrossRef
Heppner, W. L., Spears, C. A., Vidrine, J. I., & Wetter, D. W. (2015). Mindfulness and emotion regulation. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 107–120). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Hjeltnes, A., Binder, P.-E., Moltu, C., & Dundas, I. (2015). Facing the fear of failure: an explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety. International journal of qualitative studies on health and well-being, 10, 27990. doi: 10.3402/qhw.v10.27990. CrossRefPubMed
Hodapp, V., Laux, L., & Spielberger, C. (1982). Theorie und Messung der emotionalen und kognitiven Komponente der Prüfungsangst. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 3(3), 169–184.
Hodapp, V., Rohrmann, S., & Ringeisen, T. (2011). Prüfungsangstfragebogen: PAF. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Houghton, J. D., & Neck, C. P. (2002). The revised self-leadership questionnaire. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(8), 672–691. CrossRef
Howell, A. J., & Buro, K. (2011). Relations among mindfulness, achievement-related self-regulation, and achievement emotions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(6), 1007–1022. CrossRef
Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., & Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 773–777. CrossRef
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: the program of the stress reduction clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. New York: Delta.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are. Mindfulness meditation in every day life. New York: Hyperion.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Gesund durch Meditation: Das große Buch der Selbstheilung mit MBSR. München: Knaur-Taschenbuch.
Keye, M. D., & Pidgeon, A. M. (2013). An investigation of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and academic self-efficacy. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 1(6), 1–4. CrossRef
Kobarg, A. (2007). Deutsche Adaptation der Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) Validierung am Gesundheitsstatus und Gesundheitsverhalten. Germany: Philipps-Universität Marburg.
Konradt, U., Andreßen, P., & Ellwart, T. (2009). Self-leadership in organizational teams: a multilevel analysis of moderators and mediators. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18(3), 322–346. CrossRef
Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Levesque, C., & Brown, K. W. (2007). Mindfulness as a moderator of the effect of implicit motivational self-concept on day-to-day behavioral motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 284–299. CrossRef
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc..
Lucke, G. A., & Furtner, M. R. (2015). Soldiers lead themselves to more success: a self-leadership intervention study. Military Psychology, 27(5), 311–324. CrossRef
Lynch, S., Gander, M. L., Kohls, N., Kudielka, B., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness-based coping with university life: a non-randomized wait-list-controlled pilot evaluation. Stress and Health, 27(5), 365–375. CrossRef
MacKenzie, M. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2015). Self-regulatory strength and mindfulness. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 95–105). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Manz, C. C. (1986). Self-leadership: toward an expanded theory of self-influence processes in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 585–600.
Manz, C. C. (1991). Leading employees to be self-managing and beyond: toward the establishment of self-leadership in organizations. Journal of management systems, 3(3), 15–24.
Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1980). Self-management as a substitute for leadership: a social learning theory perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 5(3), 361–367.
McKean, K. J. (1994). Academic helplessness: applying learned helplessness theory to undergraduates who give up when faced with academic setbacks. College Student Journal, 28(4), 456–462.
Neck, C. P., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Two decades of self-leadership theory and research. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(4), 270–295. CrossRef
Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (1996). Thought self-leadership: the impact of mental strategies training on employee cognition, behavior, and affect. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(5), 445–467. CrossRef
Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2013). Mastering self-leadership: empowering yourself for personal excellence (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Norris, S. E. (2008). An examination of self-leadership. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2), 43–61.
Phang, C., Mukhtar, F., Ibrahim, N., Keng, S., Mohd, S., & Mohd Sidik, S. (2015). Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention program for stress management among medical students: the mindful-gym randomized controlled study. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20(5), 1115–1134. CrossRefPubMed
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33–40. CrossRef
Prussia, G. E., Anderson, J. S., & Manz, C. C. (1998). Self-leadership and performance outcomes: the mediating influence of self-efficacy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19(5), 523–538. CrossRef
Radel, R., Sarrazin, P., Legrain, P., & Gobancé, L. (2009). Subliminal priming of motivational orientation in educational settings: effect on academic performance moderated by mindfulness. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 695–698. CrossRef
Ramler, T. R., Tennison, L. R., Lynch, J., & Murphy, P. (2016). Mindfulness and the college transition: the efficacy of an adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention in fostering adjustment among first-year students. Mindfulness, 7(1), 179–188. CrossRef
Ratanasiripong, P., Park, J. F., Ratanasiripong, N., & Kathalae, D. (2015). Stress and anxiety management in nursing students: biofeedback and mindfulness meditation. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(9), 520–524.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Autonomy is no illusion: self-determination theory and the empirical study of authenticity, awareness, and will. In J. Greenberg, K. L. Sander, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of experimental existential psychology (pp. 449–479). New York: The Guilford Press.
Schultz, P. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2015). The “why,” “what,” and “how” of healthy self-regulation: mindfulness and well-being from a self-determination theory perspective. In B. D. Ostafin, M. D. Robinson, & B. P. Meier (Eds.), Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 81–94). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Stewart, G. L., Carson, K. P., & Cardy, R. L. (1996). The joint effects of conscientiousness and self-leadership training on employee self-directed behavior in a service setting. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 143–164. CrossRef
Struthers, C. W., Perry, R. P., & Menec, V. H. (2000). Anexamination of the relationship among academic stress, coping, motivation, and performance in college. Research in Higher Education, 41(5), 581–592. CrossRef
Teper, R., Segal, Z. V., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Inside the mindful mind: how mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(6), 449–454. CrossRef
Valentine, E. R., & Sweet, P. L. G. (1999). Meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2(1), 59–70. CrossRef
Zajacova, A., Lynch, S. M., & Espenshade, T. J. (2005). Self-efficacy, stress, and academic success in college. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 677–706. CrossRef
Zenner, C., Herrnleben-Kurz, S., & Walach, H. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions in schools: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(603), 1–20.
- A Randomized Controlled Pilot Intervention Study of a Mindfulness-Based Self-Leadership Training (MBSLT) on Stress and Performance
Marco R. Furtner
- Springer US