Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13047-014-0038-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BV and TMc are members of the Vasyli Think Tank. Their membersihp is not financially compensated and is voluntary.
In-shoe foot orthoses improve conditions such as plantar heel pain (fasciitis), probably due to their ability to raise the medial longitudinal arch of the foot and lower the stress on the plantar tissues. Increasingly the arch-profile form of the in-shoe foot orthosis is being incorporated into sandal footwear, providing an alternative footwear option for those who require an orthosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a sandal that incorporates the arch-profile of an in-shoe foot orthosis does indeed raise the medial longitudinal arch.
Three commercially available non-medical devices (contoured and flat sandal, prefabricated in-shoe orthosis) worn by healthy individuals were studied in two independent experiments, one using radiographic measurements in Australia (n = 11, 6 female, age 26.1 ± 4.3 yrs, BMI 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2) and the other utilising anthropometric measures in the USA (n = 10, 6 female, age 26.3 ± 3.8 yrs, BMI 23.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2). A barefoot condition was also measured. Dorsal arch height was measured in both experiments, as well as in subtalar neutral in the anthropometric experiment. One way repeated measures ANOVA with follow up Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used to test differences between the conditions (contoured and flat sandal, orthosis, barefoot). Mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standardised mean differences (SMD) were also calculated.
The contoured sandal significantly increased dorsal arch height compared to barefoot and flat sandal in both the anthropometric and radiographic experiments with SMD ranging from 0.95 (mean difference 5.1 mm (CI: 0.3, 1.6)) to 1.8 (4.3 mm (1.9, 6.6)). There were small differences between the contoured sandal and orthosis of 1.9 mm (0.6, 3.3) in the radiographic experiment and 1.2 mm (-0.4, 0.9) in the anthropometric experiment. The contoured sandal approximated the subtalar neutral position (0.4 mm (-0.5, 0.7)).
Medial longitudinal arch height is elevated by contoured sandals and approximates subtalar joint neutral position of the foot and that achieved by an orthosis. Practitioners wanting to increase the medial longitudinal arch can do so with either an orthosis or a contoured sandal that includes the raised arch profile form of an orthosis.
Authors’ original file for figure 113047_2014_38_MOESM1_ESM.gif
Authors’ original file for figure 213047_2014_38_MOESM2_ESM.gif
Authors’ original file for figure 313047_2014_38_MOESM3_ESM.gif
Authors’ original file for figure 413047_2014_38_MOESM4_ESM.gif
Authors’ original file for figure 513047_2014_38_MOESM5_ESM.gif
Authors’ original file for figure 613047_2014_38_MOESM6_ESM.gif
Hawke F, Burns J, Radford JA, du Toit V: Custom-made foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008, 3: CD006801- PubMed
Landorf KB, Menz HB: Plantar heel pain and fasciitis. Clin Evid (Online). 2008, 2008: 18-
Baldassin V, Gomes CR, Beraldo PS: Effectiveness of prefabricated and customized foot orthoses made from low-cost foam for noncomplicated plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2009, 90 (4): 701-706. 10.1016/j.apmr.2008.11.002. CrossRef
Ring K, Otter S: Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of bespoke and prefabricated foot orthoses for plantar heel pain: a prospective cohort study. Musc Care. 2014, 12 (1): 1-10. 10.1002/msc.1053. CrossRef
Irving DB, Cook JL, Young MA, Menz HB: Obesity and pronated foot type may increase the risk of chronic plantar heel pain: a matched case-control study. BMC Musc Dis. 2007, 8: 41-10.1186/1471-2474-8-41. CrossRef
Kitaoka HB, Luo ZP, An KN: Analysis of longitudinal arch supports in stabilizing the arch of the foot. Clin Orth Rel Res. 1997, 341: 250-256. 10.1097/00003086-199708000-00036. CrossRef
Kogler GF, Solomonidis SE, Paul JP: Biomechanics of longitudinal arch support mechanisms in foot orthoses and their effect on plantar aponeurosis strain. Clin Biomech. 1996, 11 (5): 243-252. 10.1016/0268-0033(96)00019-8. CrossRef
Hopkins W: A new view of statistics. In 2nd edition; 2002:1. ., [ http://www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/]
McPoil T, Cornwall MW, Abeler MG, Devereaux KJ, Flood LJ, Merriman SE, Sullivan S, van Der Laan MJ, Villadiego TA, Wilson K: The optimal method to assess the vertical mobility of the midfoot: navicular drop versus dorsal arch height difference?. Clin Res Foot Ankle. 2013, 1: 104-10.4172/2329-910X.1000104. doi:10.4172/crfa.1000104 CrossRef
Fong DT, Pang KY, Chung MM, Hung AS, Chan KM: Evaluation of combined prescription of rocker sole shoes and custom-made foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Clin Biomech. 2012, 27 (10): 1072-1077. 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2012.08.003. CrossRef
Chia KK, Suresh S, Kuah A, Ong JL, Phua JM, Seah AL: Comparative trial of the foot pressure patterns between corrective orthotics, formthotics, bone spur pads and flat insoles in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009, 38 (10): 869-875. PubMed
- A radiographic and anthropometric study of the effect of a contoured sandal and foot orthosis on supporting the medial longitudinal arch
Thomas G McPoil
- BioMed Central