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01-12-2009 | Research | Uitgave 1/2009 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2009

A questionnaire for determining prevalence of diabetes related foot disease (Q-DFD): construction and validation

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2009
Shan M Bergin, Caroline A Brand, Peter G Colman, Donald A Campbell
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1757-1146-2-34) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Caroline A Brand, Peter G Colman and Donald A Campbell contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

SMB made a substantial contribution to the conceptual design of the study, conducted all research involving participants and undertook data collection and subsequent analysis. SMB also prepared the manuscript draft. CAB, PGC and DAC all provided methodological advice regarding the study design and provided editorial advice during preparation of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.



Community based prevalence for diabetes related foot disease (DRFD) has been poorly quantified in Australian populations. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey tool to facilitate collection of community based prevalence data for individuals with DRFD via telephone interview.


Agreed components of DRFD were identified through an electronic literature search. Expert feedback and feedback from a population based construction sample were sought on the initial draft. Survey reliability was tested using a cohort recruited through a general practice, a hospital outpatient clinic and an outpatient podiatry clinic. Level of agreement between survey findings and either medical record or clinical assessment was evaluated.


The Questionnaire for Diabetes Related Foot Disease (Q-DFD) comprised 12 questions aimed at determining presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy (PN) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD), based on self report of symptoms and/or clinical history, and self report of foot ulceration, amputation and foot deformity. Survey results for 38 from 46 participants demonstrated agreement with either clinical assessment or medical record (kappa 0.65, sensitivity 89.0%, and specificity 77.8%). Correlation for individual survey components was moderate to excellent. Inter and intrarater reliability and test re-test reliability was moderate to high for all survey domains.


The development of the Q-DFD provides an opportunity for ongoing collection of prevalence estimates for DRFD across Australia.

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