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Mindfulness is a strategy that has become increasingly considered as a potential treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to review and synthesize extant research on mindfulness, current mindfulness-based interventions, and evidence-based treatments for PTSD. A theoretical foundation for classical mindfulness and a preliminary protocol integrating classical mindfulness and prolonged exposure for the treatment of PTSD was introduced. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases according to predefined criteria. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they sought to define mindfulness, employed mindfulness-based interventions for PTSD, or included evidence-based treatments for PTSD. Original Buddhist texts and resources were used to develop, support, and differentiate classical mindfulness from existing mindfulness-based interventions for PTSD. We identified a non-sufficient and inconclusive operationalization of the concept of mindfulness. Furthermore, there is limited research on the application of mindfulness for PTSD, and the few existing studies have demonstrated mixed results. The proposed integration of classical mindfulness with prolonged exposure appears to address specific limitations to current interventions for PTSD. A definition for classical mindfulness was drawn from the classic Buddhist teachings. The mastery and application of the components of classical mindfulness provide a potentially more effective way to use mindfulness for the treatment of PTSD. Although, classical mindfulness has yet to be empirically investigated or supported.
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- A Proposed Protocol Integrating Classical Mindfulness with Prolonged Exposure Therapy to Treat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Jae L. Ross
- Springer US