Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale-Parent version (SCAS-P) as a screening tool for anxiety disorders when compared to a standardized DSM-IV-TR-based clinical interview, the Kiddie-Schedule for Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Thirty-two caregivers of youth with a clinical diagnosis of ASD (mean age 10.3 years) attending a specialist autism school participated in this study. They first completed the SCAS-P, a measure of adaptive functioning and a checklist of other emotional and behavioral difficulties. They were then interviewed with the K-SADS-PL. Internal consistency for the SCAS Total score was .88, but Cronbach’s alphas were <.70 in three of the six SCAS-P subscales. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the SCAS-P against K-SADS diagnosis were .75, .71, .27, and .95, respectively. All values were >.70, except for the PPV. Evidence of convergent validity between the SCAS-P, K-SADS-PL and DBC anxiety subscale was also found. The high false positive rates notwithstanding, the preliminary data of acceptable to excellent sensitivity, specificity and NPV values tentatively suggest that the SCAS-P may be useful for screening non-help seeking young people with ASD for elevated anxiety symptoms. Further replication in larger studies is needed and ways in which the SCAS-P could be further developed and investigated for use with youth with ASD are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR and TRF profiles. Burlington: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health Disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bellini, S. (2004). Social skill deficits and anxiety in high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, 78–86. CrossRef
Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., et al. (1997). The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 545–553. PubMedCrossRef
Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Chiapetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(10), 1230–1236.
Brereton, A. V., Bruce, J. T., Mackinnon, A. J., & Einfield, S. L. (2002). Screening young people for autism with the developmental behavior checklist. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(11), 1–13. CrossRef
Bruininks, R. H., Woodcock, R. W., Weatherman, R. F., & Hill, B. K. (1996). Scales of independent behavior–revised: Manual. Boston, MA: Riverside Publishing Company.
Chorpita, B. F., Moffitt, C. E., & Gray, J. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale in a clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 309–322.
Einfeld, S. L., & Tonge, B. J. (2002). Manual for the developmental behaviour checklist: Primary carer version (DBC-P) and teacher version (DBC-T) (2nd ed.). Clayton, Melbourne: Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology.
Farrugia, S., & Hudson, J. (2006). Anxiety in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: Negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21, 25–35. CrossRef
Fitzgerald, M. (2007). Suicide and Asperger’s syndrome. The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 28(1), 1–3. CrossRef
Gadow & Sprafkin. (2002). Child symptom inventory 4: Screening and norms manual. Stony brook. New York: Checkmate Plus.
Grondhuis, S. N., & Aman, M. G. (2012). Assessment of anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 1345–1365. CrossRef
Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., et al. (1996). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children—present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): Initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988. CrossRef
Kerns, C. M., & Kendall, P. C. (2013). The presentation and classification of anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19, 323–347.
Kim, J. A., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., Streiner, D., & Wilson, F. J. (2000). The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4, 117–132. CrossRef
Kline, P. (1999). Handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London, New York: Routledge.
Lecavalier, L., Wood, J. J., Halladay, A. K., Jones, N. E., Aman, M. G., & Cook, E. H., et al. (2013). Measuring anxiety as a treatment endpoint in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Epub published ahead of print.
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. PubMedCrossRef
MacNeil, B. M., Lopes, V. A., & Minnes, P. M. (2009). Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 1–21. CrossRef
Magiati, I., Ong, C., Lim, X. Y., Tan, J. W. L., Ong, A., Patricia, F., et al. (in preparation). Factors associated with the rates and phenomenology of anxiety difficulties in children and youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: findings from a large community study.
March, J. S., & Mulle, K. (1998). OCD in children and adolescents: A cognitive-behavioral treatment manual. New York: Guilford Press.
Mason, J., & Scior, K. (2004). ‘Diagnostic overshadowing’ amongst clinicians working with people with intellectual disabilities in the UK. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 17(2), 85–90. CrossRef
Matilla, M.-L., Hurtig, T., Haapsamo, H., Jussila, K., Kuusikko-Gauffin, S., Kielinen, M., et al. (2010). Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: A community- and clinic-based study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1080–1093. CrossRef
Matson, J. L., & Gonzalez, M. (2007). Autism spectrum disorder—Comorbid for children. Baton Rouge, LA: Disability Consultants, LLC.
Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Murray, M. J., Ahuja, M., & Smith, L. A. (2011). Anxiety, depression, and irritability in children with autism relative to other neuropsychiatric disorders and typical development. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 474–485. CrossRef
Meera, S. S., Kaipa, R., Thomas, J., & Shivashankar, N. (2013). Brief report: An unusual manifestation of diagnostic overshadowing of pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified: A five year longitudinal case study. Journal for Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(6), 1491–1494.
Middleton, H. A., Middleton, R. G., & Brown, G. W. (1990). Convergent and discriminant validities of the scales of independent behavior and the revised Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94(6), 669–673. PubMed
Ministry of Health. (2010). Academy of medicine Singapore-ministry of health clinical practice guidelines: Autism spectrum disorders in pre-school children. Singapore Medical Journal, 51(3), 255–263.
Nauta, M. H. (2005). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Assessment, cognitive behavioural therapy, and predictors of treatment outcome. Enschede: Febodruk BV.
Ollendick, T. H., & White, S. H. (2012). The presentation and classification of anxiety in autism spectrum disorder: Where to from here? Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 19, 255–352. CrossRef
Perreault, W. D., & Leigh, L. E. (1989). Reliability of nominal data based on qualitative judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 26, 135–148. CrossRef
Renno, P., & Wood, J. J. (2013). Discriminant and convergent validity of the anxiety construct in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(9), 2135–2146.
Research Units on Pediatric Psychology (RUPP). (2002). The pediatric anxiety rating scale (PARS): Development and psychometric properties. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(9), 1061–1069. CrossRef
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavioral assessment system for children manual. Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing.
Reynolds, C., & Richmond, B. (1985). Revised children’s manifest anxiety scale: Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., & Pina, A. A. (2001). Test–retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and parent versions. Journal of the American Academy for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 937–944. CrossRef
Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929. CrossRef
Spence, S. A. (1998b). Structure of Anxiety symptoms among children: A confirmatory factor-analytic study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(2), 280–297. CrossRef
Storch, E. A., May, J. E., Wood, J. J., Jones, A. M., Jones, J. B., De Nadai, A. S., et al. (2012a). Multiple informant agreement on the anxiety disorders interview schedule in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 22(4), 292–299. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Storch, E. A., Wood, J. J., Ehrenreich-May, J., Jones, A. M., Park, J. M., Lewin, A. B., et al. (2012b). Convergent and discriminant validity and reliability of the pediatric anxiety rating scale in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(11), 2374–2382. PubMedCrossRef
Trembath, D., Germano, C., Johanson, G., & Dissanayake, C. (2012). The experience of anxiety in young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 27(4), 213–224.
van Steensel, F. J., Deutschman, A. A. C. G., & Bögels, S. M. (2012). Examining the screen for child anxiety-related emotional disorder-71 as an assessment tool for anxiety in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. E-publication ahead of print.
Warner, J. (2004). Clinicians’ guide to evaluating diagnostic and screening tests in psychiatry. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 446–454. CrossRef
Wigham, S., & McConachie, H. (2014). Systematic review of the properties of tools used to measure outcomes in anxiety intervention studies for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. PLoS ONE, 9(1), 1–17. CrossRef
Woo, B. S., Ng, T. P., Fung, D. S., Chan, Y. H., Lee, Y. P., Koh, J. B., et al. (2007). Emotional and behavioural problems in children based on parent, teacher and child reports. Medical Journal, 48(12), 1100–1106.
Wood, J. J., & Gadow, K. D. (2010). Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 281–292.
- A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Julianne Wen-Li Tan
Daniel S. S. Fung
- Springer US