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Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model.
Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability.
Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91.
The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.
Pothrat C, Authier G, Viehweger E, Berton E, Rao G. One- and multi-segment foot models lead to opposite results on ankle joint kinematics during gait: implications for clinical assessment. Clin Biomech. 2015;30:493–9. CrossRef
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Redmond AC, Crosbie J, Ouvrier RA. Development and validation of a novel rating system for scoring standing foot posture: the foot posture index. Clin Biomech. 2006;21:89–98. CrossRef
- A novel magnet based 3D printed marker wand as basis for repeated in-shoe multi segment foot analysis: a proof of concept
- BioMed Central