Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Self-reported romantic attachment style is a well-studied phenomenon within the romantic relationship literature, yet surprisingly little work examines its link with parenting- or child-related outcomes. Understanding the associations (or lack thereof) between adults’ self-reported attachment anxiety and avoidance with relevant outcomes in children is crucial in revealing the extent to which romantic attachment style has empirical ties with the canonical work of Bowlby and Ainsworth. With the current study, we explored whether parents’ self-reported romantic attachment style predicts a key outcome of attachment security—children's emotion reactivity and regulation. Within an ethnically diverse sample of school-aged children, we tested associations between parents’ self-reported attachment styles and children’s emotion reactivity and regulation, measured with subjective, behavioral, and physiological metrics at two time points. Results show that higher parental attachment anxiety, and to a lesser extent avoidance, predict multiple indices (behavioral, physiological, and subjective) of emotion reactivity and regulation in children. Children of parents reporting higher attachment anxiety self-reported greater positive and negative emotion, as well as greater use of emotion regulation strategies. These children also demonstrated lower physiological emotion regulation at follow-up. Children of parents higher in avoidance reported less negative emotion after a hypothetical stressor and less use of emotion regulation strategies, but more negative emotion following a failure task at follow-up. Findings add to the body of evidence suggesting that self-reported attachment anxiety and avoidance are associated with theoretically-relevant child variables in attachment research.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Aureli, T., & Presaghi, F. (2010). Developmental trajectories for mother-infant coregulation in the second year of life. Infancy, 15, 557–585. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2010.00034.x. CrossRef
Bartholomew, K., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Methods of assessing adult attachment: Do they converge? In J. A. Simpson, W. S. Rholes, J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 25–45). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2009). Some difficulties in interpreting psychophysiological research with children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, 80–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.2009.00509.x. CrossRefPubMed
Borelli, J. L., Burkhart, M. L., Rasmussen, H. F., Brody, R., & Sbarra, D. A. (2017). Secure base script content explains the association between attachment avoidance and emotion‐related constructs in parents of young children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 38, 210–225. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21632. CrossRefPubMed
Borelli, J. L., Smiley, P., Bond, D. K., Buttitta, K. V., DeMeules, M., Perrone, L., & ... West, J. L. (2015). Parental anxiety prospectively predicts fearful children’s physiological recovery from stress. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46, 774-785. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0519-6. CrossRef
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Basic Books. 1982.
Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: an integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Brumariu, L. E., Kerns, K. A., & Seibert, A. (2012). Mother–child attachment, emotion regulation, and anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Personal Relationships, 19, 569–585. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2011.01379.x. CrossRef
Butler, E. A., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J. (2006). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction. Psychophysiology, 43, 612–622. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00467.x. CrossRefPubMed
Carl, J., Soskin, D., Kerns, C., & Barlow, D. (2013). Positive emotion regulation in emotional disorders: a theoretical review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 343–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.003. CrossRefPubMed
Cohen, E., Zerach, G., & Solomon, Z. (2011). The implication of combat-induced stress reaction, PTSD, and attachment in parenting among war veterans. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 688-698. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0024065. CrossRef
Crowell, J., & Feldman, S. (1991). Mothers’ working models of attachment relationships and mother and child behavior during separation and reunion. Developmental Psychology, 27, 597–605. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1997. CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Carlo, G., & Karbon, M. (1992). Emotional responsivity to others: behavioral correlates and socialization antecedents. In N. Eisenberg, R. A. Fabes, N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes (Eds.), Emotion and its regulation in early development (pp. 57–73). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Fernandes, C., Muller, R., & Rodin, G. (2012). Predictors of parenting stress in patients with haematological cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 30, 81–96. 10.1080/07347 332.2011.633978. CrossRef
Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Leigh, T., Kennedy, R., Mattoon, G., & Target, M. (2013). Attachment, the reflective self, and borderline states: The predictive specificity of the Adult Attachment Interview and pathological emotional development. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment theory: Social, developmental, and clinical perspectives (pp. 233–278). New York, NY: Routledge.
Fraley, R. C., & Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Attachment and loss: a test of three competing models on the association between attachment-related avoidance and adaptation to bereavement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 878–890. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264289. CrossRefPubMed
Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., Booth-LaForce, C., Owen, M. T., & Holland, A. S. (2013). Interpersonal and genetic origins of adult attachment styles: a longitudinal study from infancy to early adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 817-838. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031435. CrossRef
Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350–365. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520. CrossRefPubMed
George, C., Kaplan, M., & Main, M. (1985). Adult Attachment Interview. Unpublished manuscript. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Graziano, P., & Derefinko, K. (2013). Cardiac vagal control and children's adaptive functioning: a meta-analysis. Biological Psychology, 94, 22-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.04.011. CrossRef
Gross, J. J. (1998) The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299. http://doi.org/10.1037/1089-26184.108.40.2061. CrossRef
Haft, W. L., & Slade, A. (1989). Affect attunement and maternal attachment: a pilot study. Infant Mental Health Journal, 10, 157–172. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0355(198923)10:3<157::AID-IMHJ2280100304>3.0.CO;2-3. CrossRef
Lang, P. J. (1985). Cognition in emotion: Concept and action. In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, R. B. Zajonc, C. E. Izard, J. Kagan & R. B. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotions, cognition, and behavior (pp. 192–226). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2003). The attachment behavioral system in adulthood: Activation, psychodynamics, and interpersonal processes. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 35 (pp. 53–152). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(03)01002-5.
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: structure, dynamics, and change. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Adult attachment and affect regulation. In J. Cassidy, P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 503-531). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., & Blakely, B. S. (1995). Adult attachment styles and mothers’ relationships with their young children. Personal Relationships, 2, 35–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.1995.tb00076.x. CrossRef
Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Blakely, B. S., Lanigan, L., & Allen, E. A. (1997). Adult attachment styles, the desire to have children, and working models of parenthood. Journal of Personality, 65, 357–385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00958.x. CrossRefPubMed
Roisman, G. I. (2009). Adult attachment: Toward a rapprochement of methodological cultures. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 122–126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01621.x. CrossRef
Roisman, G. I., Holland, A., Fortuna, K., Fraley, R. C., Clausell, E., & Clarke, A. (2007). The Adult attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: An empirical rapprochement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 678–697. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.118. CrossRefPubMed
Roisman, G. I., Tsai, J. L., & Chiang, K. S. (2004). The emotional integration of childhood experience: physiological, facial expressive, and self-reported emotional response during the Adult Attachment Interview. Developmental Psychology, 40, 776–789. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1686. CrossRefPubMed
Salo, J., Jokela, M., Lehtimäki, T., & Keltikangas‐Järvinen, L. (2011). Serotonin receptor 2A gene moderates the effect of childhood maternal nurturance on adulthood social attachment. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 10, 702–709. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00708.x. CrossRef
Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2002). E-Prime reference guide. Pittsburgh, PA: Psychology Software Tools, Inc.
Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2007). E-Prime getting started guide. Pittsburgh, PA: Psychology Software Tools, Inc.
Selcuk, E., Günaydin, G., Sumer, N., Harma, M., Salman, S., Hazan, C., & Ozturk, A. (2010). Self-reported romantic attachment style predicts everyday maternal caregiving behavior at home. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 544–549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2010.05.007. CrossRef
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: the development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33, 906–916. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1246. CrossRefPubMed
Kohn, J. L., Rholes, W. S., Simpson, J. A., Martin, A. I., Tran, S., & Wilson, C. L. (2012). Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: the role of adult attachment orientations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1506-1522. http://doi.org/10.1177/0146167212454548. CrossRef
Sibley, C. G., Fischer, R., & Liu, J. H. (2005). Reliability and validity of the revised experiences in close relationships (ECR-R) self-report measure of adult romantic attachment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1524–1536. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167205276865. CrossRefPubMed
Smiley, P. A., Coulson, S. L., Greene, J. K., & Bono, K. L. (2010). Performance concern, contingent self-worth, and responses to repeated achievement failure in second graders. Social Development, 19, 779-798. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00553.x. CrossRef
Slade, A., Belsky, J., Aber, J. L., & Phelps, J. L. (1999). Mothers’ representations of their relationships with their toddlers: links to adult attachment and observed mothering. Developmental Psychology, 35, 611–619. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1991. CrossRefPubMed
Spangler, G., & Grossmann, K. E. (1993). Biobehavioral organization in securely and insecurely attached infants. Child Development, 64, 1439–1450. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131544. CrossRef
Trillingsgaard, T., Elklit, A., Shevlin, M., & Maimburg, R. D. (2011). Adult attachment at the transition to motherhood: predicting worry, health care utility and relationship functioning. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 29, 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2011.611937. CrossRef
Verhage, M. L., Schuengel, C., Madigan, S., Fearon, R. P., Oosterman, M., Cassibba, R., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2016). Narrowing the transmission gap: a synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 337–366. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000038.CrossRef
Wechsler, D. (1991a). The Wechsler intelligence scale for children – third edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Walden, T. A., Harris, V. S., & Catron, T. F. (2003). How I feel: a self-report measure of emotional arousal and regulation for children. Psychological Assessment, 15, 399–412. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.529. CrossRefPubMed
Wechsler, D. (1991b). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corp.
- A Multimethod Assessment of Associations between Parental Attachment Style and School-aged Children’s Emotion
Jessica L. Borelli
Patricia A. Smiley
Margaret Burkhart Kerr
Hannah F. Rasmussen
Katherine V. Buttitta
Jessica L. West
- Springer US
- Journal of Child and Family Studies
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843