Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
There has been limited research examining the additive and interactive effects of multiple factors on the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders in youths. This study was an attempt to examine the reciprocal connections among temperament, attachment, and rearing style, and their unique and interactive relations to anxiety symptoms. Six hundred forty-four non-clinical children aged 11–15 years (mean age = 12.7 years) completed questionnaires measuring behavioral inhibition, attachment, parental rearing behavior, and anxiety symptoms. Results indicated that there were small to moderate positive correlations among various risk factors. Furthermore, modest but significant positive correlations were found between behavioral inhibition, attachment quality, and anxious and controlling rearing behaviors on the one hand, and anxiety scores on the other hand. That is, higher levels of behavioral inhibition, insecure attachment, and parental control and anxious rearing were associated with higher levels of anxiety symptoms. Finally, behavioral inhibition, attachment quality, parental control and anxious rearing each accounted for a small but unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders symptomatology. Little support was found for interactive effects of these vulnerability factors on childhood anxiety.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of youth and adolescence, 16, 427–454. CrossRef
Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Bolduc-Murphy, E. A., & Faraone, S. V. (1993). A three year follow-up of children with and without behavioral inhibition. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 814–821. PubMed
Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hirshfeld, D. R., Faraone, S. V., Bolduc, E. A., Gersten, M., Meminger, S. R., Kagan, J., Snidman, N., & Reznick, J. S. (1990). Psychiatric correlates of behavioral inhibition in young children of parents with and without psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 21–26. PubMed
Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1230–1236. PubMedCrossRef
Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., et al. (1997). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 545–553. PubMedCrossRef
Castro, J., Toro, J., Van Der Ende, J., & Arrindell, W. A. (1993). Exploring the feasibility of assessing perceived parental rearing styles in Spanish children with the EMBU. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 39, 47–57.
Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (1995). Epidemiology. In J. S. March (Ed.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 109–124). New York: Guilford Press.
Craske, M. G. (1997). Fear and anxiety in children and adolescents. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61(suppl. A), A4–A36. PubMed
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1988). Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240, 167–171. PubMed
Mannasis, K., Bradley, S., Goldber, S., Hood, J., & Swinson, R. P. (1994). Attachment in mothers with anxiety disorders and their children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1106–1113. CrossRef
Mannasis, K., Bradley, S., Goldberg, S., Hood, J., & Swinson, R. P. (1995). Behavioural inhibition, attachment and anxiety in children of mothers with anxiety disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 87–92.
Muris, P. (2006). The pathogenesis of childhood anxiety disorders: Considerations from a developmental psychopathology perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 5–11.
Muris, P., Bosma, H., Meesters, C., & Schouten, E. (1998). Perceived parental rearing behaviours: A confirmatory factor analytic study of the Dutch EMBU for children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 439–442. CrossRef
Muris, P., Mayer, B., & Meesters, C. (2000a). Self-reported attachment style, anxiety, and depression in children. Social Behavior and Personality, 28, 157–162. CrossRef
Muris, P., & Meesters, C. (2002). Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 97–105. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hülsenbeck, P. (2000b). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487–497. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Spinder, M. (2003a). Relationships between child- and parent-reported behavioural inhibition and symptoms of anxiety and depression in normal adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 759–771. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van Brakel, A. (2003b). Assessment of anxious Rearing Behaviors with a modified version of “Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran” questionnaire for children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 229–237. CrossRef
Muris, P., Meesters, C., van Melick, M., & Zwambag, L. (2001a). Self-reported attachment style, attachment quality, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 809–818. CrossRef
Muris, P., Schmidt, H., & Merckelbach, H. (2000c). Correlations among two self-report questionnaires for measuring DSM-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in children: The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders and the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 333–346. CrossRef
Van Brakel, A. M. L., Muris, P., & Bögels, S. M. (2001). Gedragsinhibitie als risicofactor voor het ontwikkelen van angststoornissen bij kinderen: Een overzicht.(Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders in children:a review). Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar grensgebieden, 56, 57–68.
Van Brakel, A., & Muris, P. (2006). A brief scale for measuring “behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar” in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28, 79–84.
Vasey, M. W., & Dadds, M. R. (2001). An introduction to the developmental psychopathology of anxiety. In M. W. Vasey & M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 3–26). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- A Multifactorial Model for the Etiology of Anxiety in Non-Clinical Adolescents: Main and Interactive Effects of Behavioral Inhibition, Attachment and Parental Rearing
Anna M. L. van Brakel
Susan M. Bögels
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers