Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 9/2016

08-06-2016 | Original Paper

A Meta-analysis of Wilderness Therapy Outcomes for Private Pay Clients

Auteurs: Joanna E. Bettmann, H. L. Gillis, Elizabeth A. Speelman, Kimber J. Parry, Jonathan M. Case

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 9/2016

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Wilderness therapy is becoming a more widely used intervention for adolescents, but there have not been any meta-analyses focused solely on its clinical effectiveness for private pay clients. This study’s objective was to conduct outcome-based meta-analyses of private-pay wilderness therapy programs, benchmark primary features of this approach, and educate the clinical community as to its effectiveness. The authors conducted a review of all available databases, as well as manual searches. Searches resulted in a meta-analysis based on 36 studies, totaling 2399 participants receiving wilderness therapy. Our meta-analyses found medium effect sizes for all six constructs assessed: self-esteem (g = 0.49), locus of control (g = 0.55), behavioral observations (g = 0.75), personal effectiveness (g = 0.46), clinical measures (g = 0.50) and interpersonal measures (g = 0.54). Subgroup analyses included age of participants, duration of program, open or closed model, presence of a mental health practitioner, and publication year.
Literatuur
go back to reference *Anderson, A. L. (1995). Effect of a wilderness therapy program on youth-at-risk, as measured by locus of control and self concept (Master’s thesis). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. *Anderson, A. L. (1995). Effect of a wilderness therapy program on youth-at-risk, as measured by locus of control and self concept (Master’s thesis). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
go back to reference *Bandoroff, S. (1992). Wilderness family therapy: An innovative treatment approach for problem youth. University of South Carolina. *Bandoroff, S. (1992). Wilderness family therapy: An innovative treatment approach for problem youth. University of South Carolina.
go back to reference *Bateman, K. V. Jr. (1990). Changes in self-concept and behavior of adolescents in wilderness therapeutic camp (Doctoral dissertation). East Texas State University, Commerce, TX. *Bateman, K. V. Jr. (1990). Changes in self-concept and behavior of adolescents in wilderness therapeutic camp (Doctoral dissertation). East Texas State University, Commerce, TX.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendleson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571. CrossRefPubMed Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendleson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Becker, S. P. (2010). Wilderness therapy: Ethical considerations for mental health professionals. Child & Youth Care Forum, 39, 47–61. CrossRef Becker, S. P. (2010). Wilderness therapy: Ethical considerations for mental health professionals. Child & Youth Care Forum, 39, 47–61. CrossRef
go back to reference Bedard, R. M., Rosen, L. A., & Vacha-Haase, T. (2003). Wilderness therapy programs for juvenile delinquents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Therapeutic Wilderness Camping, 3, 7–13. Bedard, R. M., Rosen, L. A., & Vacha-Haase, T. (2003). Wilderness therapy programs for juvenile delinquents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Therapeutic Wilderness Camping, 3, 7–13.
go back to reference Behrens, E., & Satterfield, K. (2006, August). Report findings from a multi-center study of youth outcomes in private residential treatment. Report presented at the 114th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LO. Behrens, E., & Satterfield, K. (2006, August). Report findings from a multi-center study of youth outcomes in private residential treatment. Report presented at the 114th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LO.
go back to reference Behrens, E., & Satterfield, K. (2008). Longitudinal family and academic outcomes in residential programs: How students function in two important areas of their lives. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 2, 81–94. Behrens, E., & Satterfield, K. (2008). Longitudinal family and academic outcomes in residential programs: How students function in two important areas of their lives. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 2, 81–94.
go back to reference *Bettmann, J. E. (2005). Shifts in attachment relationships: A quantitative study of adolescents in brief residential treatment (Doctoral dissertation). Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, MA. *Bettmann, J. E. (2005). Shifts in attachment relationships: A quantitative study of adolescents in brief residential treatment (Doctoral dissertation). Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, MA.
go back to reference Bettmann, J. E., & Jasperson, R. A. (2007). Adults in wilderness treatment: A unique application of attachment theory and research. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36, 51–61. CrossRef Bettmann, J. E., & Jasperson, R. A. (2007). Adults in wilderness treatment: A unique application of attachment theory and research. Clinical Social Work Journal, 36, 51–61. CrossRef
go back to reference *Bettmann, J. E., Russell, K. C., & Parry, K. J. (2012). How substance abuse recovery skills, readiness to change and symptom reduction impact change processes in wilderness therapy participants. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 1039–1050. doi: 10.​1007/​s10826-012-9665-2. CrossRef *Bettmann, J. E., Russell, K. C., & Parry, K. J. (2012). How substance abuse recovery skills, readiness to change and symptom reduction impact change processes in wilderness therapy participants. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 1039–1050. doi: 10.​1007/​s10826-012-9665-2. CrossRef
go back to reference Bickman, L., Vides de Andrade, A. R., Lambert, E. W., Doucette, A., Saptya, J., Boyd, A. S., et al. (2004). Youth therapeutic alliance in intensive treatment setting. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 31, 134–148. CrossRef Bickman, L., Vides de Andrade, A. R., Lambert, E. W., Doucette, A., Saptya, J., Boyd, A. S., et al. (2004). Youth therapeutic alliance in intensive treatment setting. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 31, 134–148. CrossRef
go back to reference Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis [computer program], version 2. Englewood, NJ: Biostat. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis [computer program], version 2. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
go back to reference Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. West Sussex: Wiley. CrossRef Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. West Sussex: Wiley. CrossRef
go back to reference Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis [computer program], version 3. Englewood, NJ: Biostat. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis [computer program], version 3. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
go back to reference Bowen, D. J., & Neill, J. T. (2013). A meta-analysis of adventure therapy outcomes and moderators. The Open Psychology Journal, 6, 28–53. CrossRef Bowen, D. J., & Neill, J. T. (2013). A meta-analysis of adventure therapy outcomes and moderators. The Open Psychology Journal, 6, 28–53. CrossRef
go back to reference Burlingame, G. M., Wells, M. G., & Lambert, M. J. (1995). The youth outcome questionnaire. Stevenson, MD: American Professional Credentialing Services. Burlingame, G. M., Wells, M. G., & Lambert, M. J. (1995). The youth outcome questionnaire. Stevenson, MD: American Professional Credentialing Services.
go back to reference Card, N. A. (2012). Applied meta-analysis for social science research. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Card, N. A. (2012). Applied meta-analysis for social science research. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Cason, D., & Gillis, H. L. (1994). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education, 17, 40–47. CrossRef Cason, D., & Gillis, H. L. (1994). A meta-analysis of outdoor adventure programming with adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education, 17, 40–47. CrossRef
go back to reference *Christensen, N. E. (2008). Effects of wilderness therapy on motivation and cognitive, emotional, and behavioral variables in adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. *Christensen, N. E. (2008). Effects of wilderness therapy on motivation and cognitive, emotional, and behavioral variables in adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
go back to reference *Clark, J. P., Marmol, L. M., Cooley, R., & Gathercoal, K. (2004). The effects of wilderness therapy on the clinical concerns (on axes I, II, and IV) of troubled adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education, 27, 213–232. CrossRef *Clark, J. P., Marmol, L. M., Cooley, R., & Gathercoal, K. (2004). The effects of wilderness therapy on the clinical concerns (on axes I, II, and IV) of troubled adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education, 27, 213–232. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Crisp, S. (1996). International models of best practice in wilderness and adventure therapy: Implications for Australia (final report). Melbourne: Winston Churchill Fellowship. Crisp, S. (1996). International models of best practice in wilderness and adventure therapy: Implications for Australia (final report). Melbourne: Winston Churchill Fellowship.
go back to reference *Davis-Berman, J., & Berman, D. S. (1989). The wilderness therapy program: An empirical study of its effects with adolescents in an outpatient setting. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 19, 270–281. *Davis-Berman, J., & Berman, D. S. (1989). The wilderness therapy program: An empirical study of its effects with adolescents in an outpatient setting. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 19, 270–281.
go back to reference Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot–based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56, 455–463. CrossRefPubMed Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot–based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics, 56, 455–463. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Eikenœs, I., Gude, T., & Hofart, A. (2006). Integrated wilderness therapy for avoidant personality disorder. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 275–281. CrossRef *Eikenœs, I., Gude, T., & Hofart, A. (2006). Integrated wilderness therapy for avoidant personality disorder. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 275–281. CrossRef
go back to reference Ellis, P. D. (2010). The essential guide to effect sizes: An introduction to statistical power, meta-analysis and the interpretation of research results. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Ellis, P. D. (2010). The essential guide to effect sizes: An introduction to statistical power, meta-analysis and the interpretation of research results. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference *Ganapol, D. S. (2008). The transformative effects of a three- week adventure therapy program with adolescents: An exploration of trauma and resiliency (Master’s thesis). Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, MA. *Ganapol, D. S. (2008). The transformative effects of a three- week adventure therapy program with adolescents: An exploration of trauma and resiliency (Master’s thesis). Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, MA.
go back to reference Gass, M. A., Gillis, H. L., & Russell, K. E. (2012). Adventure therapy: Theory, research, & practice. New York, NY: Routledge. Gass, M. A., Gillis, H. L., & Russell, K. E. (2012). Adventure therapy: Theory, research, & practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
go back to reference Gerstein, D. R., & Harwood, H. J. (Eds.). (1990). Treating drug problems: A study of the evolution, effectiveness, and financing of public and private drug treatment systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Gerstein, D. R., & Harwood, H. J. (Eds.). (1990). Treating drug problems: A study of the evolution, effectiveness, and financing of public and private drug treatment systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
go back to reference *Hagan, J. D. (2002). An alternative therapy for the behaviorally challenged youth: The efficacy of wilderness therapy programs (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Toledo, OH. *Hagan, J. D. (2002). An alternative therapy for the behaviorally challenged youth: The efficacy of wilderness therapy programs (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Toledo, OH.
go back to reference Hair, H. J. (2005). Outcomes for children and adolescents after residential treatment: A review of research from 1993 to 2003. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 551–575. CrossRef Hair, H. J. (2005). Outcomes for children and adolescents after residential treatment: A review of research from 1993 to 2003. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 551–575. CrossRef
go back to reference *Harper, N. J. (2009). The relationship of therapeutic alliance to outcome in wilderness treatment. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 9, 45–59. CrossRef *Harper, N. J. (2009). The relationship of therapeutic alliance to outcome in wilderness treatment. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 9, 45–59. CrossRef
go back to reference *Harper, N. J., & Russell, K. C. (2008). Family involvement and outcome in adolescent wilderness treatment: A mixed-methods evaluation. International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 1, 19–36. *Harper, N. J., & Russell, K. C. (2008). Family involvement and outcome in adolescent wilderness treatment: A mixed-methods evaluation. International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 1, 19–36.
go back to reference *Harper, N. J., Russell, K. C., Cooley, R., & Cupples, J. (2007). Catherine Freer wilderness therapy expeditions: An exploratory case study of adolescent wilderness therapy, family functioning, and the maintenance of change. Child & Youth Care Forum, 36, 111–129. CrossRef *Harper, N. J., Russell, K. C., Cooley, R., & Cupples, J. (2007). Catherine Freer wilderness therapy expeditions: An exploratory case study of adolescent wilderness therapy, family functioning, and the maintenance of change. Child & Youth Care Forum, 36, 111–129. CrossRef
go back to reference *Harrison, M. M. (1999). Predictors of self- concept growth in youth at risk in wilderness therapy programs (Master’s thesis). Southern Illinois University at Corbondale, IL. *Harrison, M. M. (1999). Predictors of self- concept growth in youth at risk in wilderness therapy programs (Master’s thesis). Southern Illinois University at Corbondale, IL.
go back to reference Hattie, J., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43–87. CrossRef Hattie, J., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43–87. CrossRef
go back to reference *Haywood, M. M. (2001). The effect of wilderness therapy on the self- concept of adolescents (Master’s thesis). California State University Hayward, CA. *Haywood, M. M. (2001). The effect of wilderness therapy on the self- concept of adolescents (Master’s thesis). California State University Hayward, CA.
go back to reference *Herrity, G. C. (2009). A follow- up study exploring the transformative effects of wilderness therapy on adolescents with histories of trauma (Master’s thesis). Smith College of Social Work, Northampton, MA. *Herrity, G. C. (2009). A follow- up study exploring the transformative effects of wilderness therapy on adolescents with histories of trauma (Master’s thesis). Smith College of Social Work, Northampton, MA.
go back to reference Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (Eds.). (2008). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Vol. 5). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (Eds.). (2008). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Vol. 5). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
go back to reference Hooper, S. R., Murphy, J., Devaney, A., & Hultman, T. (2000). Ecological outcomes of adolescents in a psychoeducational residential treatment facility. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 491–500. CrossRefPubMed Hooper, S. R., Murphy, J., Devaney, A., & Hultman, T. (2000). Ecological outcomes of adolescents in a psychoeducational residential treatment facility. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 491–500. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jeppson, M. (2008). Characterization and comparative analysis of adolescents admitted to therapeutic wilderness programs and more traditional treatment settings (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest dissertations and theses database (AAT 3318622). Jeppson, M. (2008). Characterization and comparative analysis of adolescents admitted to therapeutic wilderness programs and more traditional treatment settings (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest dissertations and theses database (AAT 3318622).
go back to reference Kanas, N. (1988). Therapy groups for schizophrenic patients on acute care units. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 39, 546–549. Kanas, N. (1988). Therapy groups for schizophrenic patients on acute care units. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 39, 546–549.
go back to reference Kimball, R. O., & Bacon, S. B. (1993). The wilderness challenge model. In M. Gass (Ed.), Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming (pp. 11–41). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt Publishing. Kimball, R. O., & Bacon, S. B. (1993). The wilderness challenge model. In M. Gass (Ed.), Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming (pp. 11–41). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt Publishing.
go back to reference *Kraus, I. W. (1982). The effectiveness of wilderness therapy with emotionally disturbed adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. *Kraus, I. W. (1982). The effectiveness of wilderness therapy with emotionally disturbed adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.
go back to reference *Larson, B. A. (2007). Adventure camp programs, self-concept and their effects on behavioral problem adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education, 29, 313–330. CrossRef *Larson, B. A. (2007). Adventure camp programs, self-concept and their effects on behavioral problem adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education, 29, 313–330. CrossRef
go back to reference *Lewis, B. A. (1994). The use of art and wilderness experience to increase hope in adolescents: An exploration of an intervention (Master’s thesis). College of Notre Dame, Belmont, CA. *Lewis, B. A. (1994). The use of art and wilderness experience to increase hope in adolescents: An exploration of an intervention (Master’s thesis). College of Notre Dame, Belmont, CA.
go back to reference Lorentzen, S., Høglend, P., & Ruud, T. (2008, June). The efficacy of short‐ and long‐term psychodynamic group psychotherapy. A Norwegian multi‐center study. Panel presentation at the annual meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Barcelona, Spain. Lorentzen, S., Høglend, P., & Ruud, T. (2008, June). The efficacy of short‐ and long‐term psychodynamic group psychotherapy. A Norwegian multi‐center study. Panel presentation at the annual meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Barcelona, Spain.
go back to reference *Lowe, T. A. (2005). The effectiveness of Anasazi: A wilderness treatment program (Doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. *Lowe, T. A. (2005). The effectiveness of Anasazi: A wilderness treatment program (Doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
go back to reference Magle-Haberek, N., Tucker, A. R., & Gass, M. A. (2012). Effects of program differences with wilderness therapy and residential treatment center (RTC) programs. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 29, 202–218. CrossRef Magle-Haberek, N., Tucker, A. R., & Gass, M. A. (2012). Effects of program differences with wilderness therapy and residential treatment center (RTC) programs. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 29, 202–218. CrossRef
go back to reference *Martinez, M. C. (2002). A wilderness therapy program for a diverse group of at risk adolescent boys: Changes in self- esteem and locus of control and there relationship to group affiliation (Doctoral dissertation). The California School of Professional Psychology, San Francisco Bay Campus, San Francisco, CA. *Martinez, M. C. (2002). A wilderness therapy program for a diverse group of at risk adolescent boys: Changes in self- esteem and locus of control and there relationship to group affiliation (Doctoral dissertation). The California School of Professional Psychology, San Francisco Bay Campus, San Francisco, CA.
go back to reference Millon, T., Millon, C., & Davis, R. (1993). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Minneapolis, MN: NGS Assessments. Millon, T., Millon, C., & Davis, R. (1993). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Minneapolis, MN: NGS Assessments.
go back to reference Moses, T. (2000). Attachment theory and residential treatment: A study of staff–client relationships. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 474–490. CrossRefPubMed Moses, T. (2000). Attachment theory and residential treatment: A study of staff–client relationships. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 474–490. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Mulvaney, T. R. (2011). Efficacy of outdoor therapy interventions: Meeting life skills and well- being objectives for at- risk young people? A mixed methods evaluation. Bachelor of Science in Psychology (Honours), University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia. *Mulvaney, T. R. (2011). Efficacy of outdoor therapy interventions: Meeting life skills and well- being objectives for at- risk young people? A mixed methods evaluation. Bachelor of Science in Psychology (Honours), University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia.
go back to reference Neill, J. T., Marsh, H. W., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Development and psychometrics of the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire. Sydney: University of Western Sydney. Neill, J. T., Marsh, H. W., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Development and psychometrics of the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire. Sydney: University of Western Sydney.
go back to reference Newes, S. L., & Doherty, T. J. (2007). Evaluating wilderness therapy as an option for treatment resistant adolescents. Paper presented at 2007 American Psychological Association Convention, San Francisco, CA. Newes, S. L., & Doherty, T. J. (2007). Evaluating wilderness therapy as an option for treatment resistant adolescents. Paper presented at 2007 American Psychological Association Convention, San Francisco, CA.
go back to reference Norcross, J. C. (2002). Empirically supported therapy relationships. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 3–16). New York: Oxford University Press. Norcross, J. C. (2002). Empirically supported therapy relationships. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 3–16). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference *Norton, C. L. (2007). Understanding the impact of wilderness therapy on adolescent depression and psychosocial development (Doctoral dissertation). Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL. *Norton, C. L. (2007). Understanding the impact of wilderness therapy on adolescent depression and psychosocial development (Doctoral dissertation). Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL.
go back to reference Norton, C., Tucker, A., Russell, K., Bettmann, J. E., Gass, M., Gillis, H. L., & Behrens, E. (2014). Adventure therapy with youth: A state of knowledge paper. Journal of Experiential Education, 37, 46–59. doi: 10.​1177/​1053825913518895​. CrossRef Norton, C., Tucker, A., Russell, K., Bettmann, J. E., Gass, M., Gillis, H. L., & Behrens, E. (2014). Adventure therapy with youth: A state of knowledge paper. Journal of Experiential Education, 37, 46–59. doi: 10.​1177/​1053825913518895​. CrossRef
go back to reference Nowicki, S., & Strickland, B. (1973). A locus of control scale for children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 148–154. CrossRef Nowicki, S., & Strickland, B. (1973). A locus of control scale for children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 148–154. CrossRef
go back to reference *Nurenberg, S. J. G. (1985). Psychological development of borderline adolescents in wilderness therapy (Doctoral dissertation). Smith College, Northampton, MA. *Nurenberg, S. J. G. (1985). Psychological development of borderline adolescents in wilderness therapy (Doctoral dissertation). Smith College, Northampton, MA.
go back to reference *Pawlowski, M., Holme, G., & Hafner, R. J. (1993). Wilderness therapy for psychiatric disorder. Mental Health in Australia, 1, 8–14. *Pawlowski, M., Holme, G., & Hafner, R. J. (1993). Wilderness therapy for psychiatric disorder. Mental Health in Australia, 1, 8–14.
go back to reference *Price, R., & DeBever, M. (1998). The windana therapeutic community’s action adventure program. In Exploring the boundaries of adventure therapy: International perspectives. Proceedings of the international adventure therapy conference (1st, Perth, Australia, July, 1997). *Price, R., & DeBever, M. (1998). The windana therapeutic community’s action adventure program. In Exploring the boundaries of adventure therapy: International perspectives. Proceedings of the international adventure therapy conference (1st, Perth, Australia, July, 1997).
go back to reference *Rice, S. (1988). A study of the impact of long- term therapeutic camping on self- concept development among troubled youth (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. *Rice, S. (1988). A study of the impact of long- term therapeutic camping on self- concept development among troubled youth (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.
go back to reference Rodgers, J. H., & Barnett, P. G. (2000). Two separate tracks? A national multivariate analysis of differences between public and private substance abuse treatment programs. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 429–442. CrossRefPubMed Rodgers, J. H., & Barnett, P. G. (2000). Two separate tracks? A national multivariate analysis of differences between public and private substance abuse treatment programs. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 429–442. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Romi, S., & Kohan, E. (2004). Wilderness programs: Principles, possibilities and opportunities for intervention with dropout adolescents. Child & Youth Care Forum, 33, 115–136. CrossRef *Romi, S., & Kohan, E. (2004). Wilderness programs: Principles, possibilities and opportunities for intervention with dropout adolescents. Child & Youth Care Forum, 33, 115–136. CrossRef
go back to reference *Ronalds, L., & Allen-Craig, S. (2008). Preventing family and educational disconnection through wilderness-based therapy targeting youth at risk. ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal, 55, 7–16. *Ronalds, L., & Allen-Craig, S. (2008). Preventing family and educational disconnection through wilderness-based therapy targeting youth at risk. ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal, 55, 7–16.
go back to reference Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, K. C. (1999). Theoretical basis, process, and reported outcomes of wilderness therapy as an intervention and treatment for problem behavior in adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest dissertations and theses database (AAT 9954110). Russell, K. C. (1999). Theoretical basis, process, and reported outcomes of wilderness therapy as an intervention and treatment for problem behavior in adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest dissertations and theses database (AAT 9954110).
go back to reference Russell, K. C. (2000). Exploring how the wilderness therapy process relates to outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education, 23, 170–176. CrossRef Russell, K. C. (2000). Exploring how the wilderness therapy process relates to outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education, 23, 170–176. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, K. C. (2001). What is wilderness therapy? Journal of Experiential Education, 24, 70–79. CrossRef Russell, K. C. (2001). What is wilderness therapy? Journal of Experiential Education, 24, 70–79. CrossRef
go back to reference *Russell, K. C. (2003). An assessment of outcomes in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Child & Youth Care Forum, 32, 355–381. CrossRef *Russell, K. C. (2003). An assessment of outcomes in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Child & Youth Care Forum, 32, 355–381. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, K. C. (2005). Two years later: A qualitative assessment of youth well-being and the role of aftercare in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Child & Youth Care Forum, 34, 209–239. doi: 10.​1007/​s10566-005-3470-7. CrossRef Russell, K. C. (2005). Two years later: A qualitative assessment of youth well-being and the role of aftercare in outdoor behavioral healthcare treatment. Child & Youth Care Forum, 34, 209–239. doi: 10.​1007/​s10566-005-3470-7. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, K. C. (2007). Adolescent substance-use treatment: Service delivery, research on effectiveness, and emerging treatment alternatives. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 2, 68–96. CrossRef Russell, K. C. (2007). Adolescent substance-use treatment: Service delivery, research on effectiveness, and emerging treatment alternatives. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 2, 68–96. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Lewis, T. G. (2008). A five-year follow-up of a survey of north American outdoor behavioral healthcare programs. Journal of Experiential Education, 31, 55–77. CrossRef Russell, K. C., Gillis, H. L., & Lewis, T. G. (2008). A five-year follow-up of a survey of north American outdoor behavioral healthcare programs. Journal of Experiential Education, 31, 55–77. CrossRef
go back to reference Russell, K. C., Hendee, J. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (1999). How wilderness therapy works: An evaluation of the wilderness therapy process to treat adolescents with behavioral problems and addictions. In D. N. Cole & S. F. McCool (Eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness science in a time of change (pp. 207–217). Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forrest Services, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Russell, K. C., Hendee, J. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (1999). How wilderness therapy works: An evaluation of the wilderness therapy process to treat adolescents with behavioral problems and addictions. In D. N. Cole & S. F. McCool (Eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness science in a time of change (pp. 207–217). Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forrest Services, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
go back to reference Russell, K. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (2002). Perspectives on the wilderness therapy process and its relation to outcome. Child & Youth Care Forum, 31, 415–437. CrossRef Russell, K. C., & Phillips-Miller, D. (2002). Perspectives on the wilderness therapy process and its relation to outcome. Child & Youth Care Forum, 31, 415–437. CrossRef
go back to reference Steenbarger, B. N. (1994). Duration and outcome in psychotherapy: An integrative review. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 111–119. CrossRef Steenbarger, B. N. (1994). Duration and outcome in psychotherapy: An integrative review. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 111–119. CrossRef
go back to reference Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2008). Mental health service use among youths aged 12 to 17: 2005 and 2006. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2008). Mental health service use among youths aged 12 to 17: 2005 and 2006. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.
go back to reference Tourigny, M., & Hebert, M. (2007). Comparison of open versus closed group interventions for sexually abused adolescent girls. Violence and Victims, 22, 334–349. CrossRefPubMed Tourigny, M., & Hebert, M. (2007). Comparison of open versus closed group interventions for sexually abused adolescent girls. Violence and Victims, 22, 334–349. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference *Tucker, A., Bettmann, J. E., Norton, C., & Comart, C. (2015). The role of transport use in adolescent wilderness treatment: Its relationship to readiness to change and outcomes. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44, 671–686. doi: 10.​1007/​s10566-015-9301-6. CrossRef *Tucker, A., Bettmann, J. E., Norton, C., & Comart, C. (2015). The role of transport use in adolescent wilderness treatment: Its relationship to readiness to change and outcomes. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44, 671–686. doi: 10.​1007/​s10566-015-9301-6. CrossRef
go back to reference U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Author. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Author.
go back to reference *Vissell, R. (2004). Effects of wilderness therapy on youth at risk’s concept of self and other: A deeper understanding of the journey (Doctoral dissertation). Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto, CA. *Vissell, R. (2004). Effects of wilderness therapy on youth at risk’s concept of self and other: A deeper understanding of the journey (Doctoral dissertation). Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto, CA.
go back to reference West, M., Rose, M. S., Spreng, S., Sheldon-Keller, A., & Adam, K. (1998). Adolescent attachment questionnaire: A brief assessment of attachment in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 661–673. CrossRef West, M., Rose, M. S., Spreng, S., Sheldon-Keller, A., & Adam, K. (1998). Adolescent attachment questionnaire: A brief assessment of attachment in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 661–673. CrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Wilderness challenge programs for delinquent youth: A meta-analysis of outcome evaluations. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 1–12. CrossRef Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. (2000). Wilderness challenge programs for delinquent youth: A meta-analysis of outcome evaluations. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 1–12. CrossRef
go back to reference Yalom, I. D., & Leszcz, M. (2005). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York: Basic Books. Yalom, I. D., & Leszcz, M. (2005). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Young, M. C., & Gass, M. (2010). Preliminary data from the NATSAP research and evaluation network: Client characteristics at admission. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 4, 80–105. Young, M. C., & Gass, M. (2010). Preliminary data from the NATSAP research and evaluation network: Client characteristics at admission. Journal of Therapeutic Schools and Programs, 4, 80–105.
Metagegevens
Titel
A Meta-analysis of Wilderness Therapy Outcomes for Private Pay Clients
Auteurs
Joanna E. Bettmann
H. L. Gillis
Elizabeth A. Speelman
Kimber J. Parry
Jonathan M. Case
Publicatiedatum
08-06-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 9/2016
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0439-0