Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0371-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
A large body of work has investigated the association between birth weight and ADHD and has resulted in mixed findings with regard to the direction and magnitude of this association. Despite the vast amount of research on this topic, a comprehensive and systematic quantification of the association between birth weight and ADHD has yet to be undertaken. A meta-analysis of 88 unique studies (N = 4,645,482) was conducted to quantify the overall effect size of birth weight on ADHD symptoms. Several variables were examined as moderators that may contribute to systematic variation in effect sizes. Overall, birth weight was found to have a small, but significant, association with ADHD symptoms such that individuals born at lower birth weights manifested greater symptoms of ADHD (r = −0.15). Sample type, mean birth weight of the sample, geographic region, the informant of ADHD symptoms, ADHD symptom measurement method, and race were all found to contribute significantly to heterogeneity in effect sizes. Notably, several early life risk factors previously found to be associated with both ADHD and birth weight, gestational age and prenatal smoking exposure, were not found to contribute to heterogeneity in effect sizes. The findings of the current analyses align with the growing recognition that early life adversity contributes to neurodevelopmental difficulties, and the findings highlight the importance of a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between early life risk factors and adverse neurodevelopmental sequela, such as that observed in ADHD.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
*Adger-Antonikowski, A. (2009). A functionalist perspective of language ability and behavioral synchrony in the development of emotion regulation. (70), ProQuest Information & Learning, US.
Akinbami, L. J., Xiang, L., Pastor, P. N., & Reuben, C. A. (2011) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–7 Years in the United States, 1998–2009. Vol. 70. NCHS Data Brief. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. CrossRef
*Anderson, P., Doyle, L. W., & Victorian Infant Collaborative Study, G. (2003). Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born extremely low birth weight or very preterm in the 1990s. JAMA, 289(24), 3264–3272. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.24.3264
*Anderson, P. J., De Luca, C. R., Hutchinson, E., Spencer-Smith, M. M., Roberts, G., & Doyle, L. W. (2011). Attention problems in a representative sample of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36(1), 57–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2011.540538
*Andreias, L., Borawski, E., Schluchter, M., Taylor, H. G., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2010). Neighborhood influences on the academic achievement of extremely low birth weight children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(3), 275–283. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsp057
*Asbury, K., Dunn, J. F., & Plomin, R. (2006). Birthweight-discordance and differences in early parenting relate to monozygotic twin differences in behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. Developmental Science, 9(2), F22‑F31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.20060.00469.x
*Astbury, J., Orgill, A. A., Bajuk, B., & Yu, V. Y. (1985). Neonatal and neurodevelopmental significance of behaviour in very low birthweight children. Early Human Development, 11(2), 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3782(85)90098-2
Barker, D. J. P. (1998). Mothers, babies, and health in later life (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
*Beverly, B. L., McGuinness, T. M., & Blanton, D. J. (2008). Communication and academic challenges in early adolescence for children who have been adopted from the former Soviet Union. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39(3), 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2008/029)
*Bora, S., Pritchard, V. E., Moor, S., Austin, N. C., & Woodward, L. J. (2011). Emotional and behavioural adjustment of children born very preterm at early school age. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 47(12), 863–869. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1754.2011.02105.x
Borenstein, M. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons.
*Botting, N., Powls, A., Cooke, R. W., & Marlow, N. (1997). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and other psychiatric outcomes in very low birthweight children at 12 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(8), 931–941.
*Boulet, S. L., Schieve, L. A., & Boyle, C. A. (2011). Birth weight and health and developmental outcomes in US children, 1997–2005. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(7), 836–844. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-009-0538-2
*Breeman, L. D., Jaekel, J., Baumann, N., Bartmann, P., & Wolke, D. (2016). Attention problems in very preterm children from childhood to adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(2), 132–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12456
*Breslau, N., Brown, G. G., Deldotto, J. E., Kumar, S., Ezhuthachan, S., Andreski, P., & Hufnagle, K. G. (1996). Psychiatric sequelae of low birth weight at 6 years of age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24(3), 385–400. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01441637
Catov, J. M., Newman, A. B., Kelsey, S. F., Roberts, J. M., Sutton-Tyrrell, K. C., Garcia, M., et al. (2006). Accuracy and reliability of maternal recall of infant birth weight among older women. Annals of Epidemiology, 16(6), 429–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2005.090.004. CrossRefPubMed
*Chu, S. M., Tsai, M. H., Hwang, F. M., Hsu, J. F., Huang, H. R., & Huang, Y. S. (2012). The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and premature infants in Taiwanese: a case control study. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 85. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-12-85
*Class, Q. A., Rickert, M. E., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., & D'Onofrio, B. M. (2014). Fetal growth and psychiatric and socioeconomic problems: population-based sibling comparison. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 205(5), 355–361. doi: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.113.143693
Cochran, W. G. (1954). The combination of estimates from different experiments. Biometrics, 10, 101–129. CrossRef
*Conrad, A. L., Richman, L., Lindgren, S., & Nopoulos, P. (2010). Biological and environmental predictors of behavioral sequelae in children born preterm. Pediatrics, 125(1), e83‑e89. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-0634
*Crea, T. M., Chan, K., & Barth, R. P. (2014). Family environment and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adopted children: associations with family cohesion and adaptability. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(6), 853–862. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12112
*Davis, D. W., Burns, B., Snyder, E., & Robinson, J. (2007). Attention problems in very low birth weight preschoolers: are new screening measures needed for this special population? Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 20(2), 74–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.20070.00089.x
de Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Fayyad, J., ten Have, M., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., et al. (2008). The prevalence and effects of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(12), 835–842. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2007.038448. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
*de Zeeuw, P., van Belle, J., van Dijk, S., Weusten, J., Koeleman, B., Janson, E., … Durston, S. (2012). Imaging gene and environmental effects on cerebellum in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and typical development. Neurologic Clinics, 2, 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2012.11.010
Derks, E. M., Hudziak, J. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2009). Genetics of ADHD, hyperactivity, and attention probelms. In Y. Kim (Ed.), Handbook of Behavior Genetics (pp. 361–378). New York: Springer. CrossRef
D'Onofrio, B. M., Class, Q. A., Rickert, M. E., Larsson, H., Langstrom, N., & Lichtenstein, P. (2013). Preterm birth and mortality and morbidity: a population-based quasi-experimental study. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(11), 1231–1240. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2107. CrossRefPubMed
Doshi, J. A., Hodgkins, P., Kahle, J., Sikirica, V., Cangelosi, M. J., Setyawan, J., et al. (2012). Economic impact of childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(10), 990–1002 e1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.070.008. CrossRefPubMed
*Duris, M. G. (2002). The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children born at low birth weight. (63), ProQuest Information & Learning, USA.
*Elgen, I. B., Holsten, F., & Odberg, M. D. (2013). Psychiatric disorders in low birthweight young adults. Prevalence and association with assessments at 11 years. European Psychiatry, 28(7), 393–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2012.060.002.
*Emond, A. M., Lira, P. I., Lima, M. C., Grantham-McGregor, S. M., & Ashworth, A. (2006). Development and behaviour of low-birthweight term infants at 8 years in northeast Brazil: a longitudinal study. Acta Paediatrica, 95(10), 1249–1257. https://doi.org/10.1080/08035250600615127
Erhardt, D., Epstein, J. N., Conners, C. K., Parker, J. D. A., & Sitarenios, G. (1999). Self-ratings of ADHD sypmtoms in adults II: Reliability, validity, and diagnostic sensitivity. Journal of Attention Disorders, 3(3), 153–158. CrossRef
Estourgie-van Burk, G. F., Bartels, M., Hoekstra, R. A., Polderman, T. J., Delemarre-van de Waal, H. A., & Boomsma, D. I. (2009). A twin study of cognitive costs of low birth weight and catch-up growth. The Journal of Pediatrics, 154(1), 29–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.07.016. CrossRefPubMed
Faraone, S. V., Perlis, R. H., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., Goralnick, J. J., Holmgren, M. A., & Sklar, P. (2005). Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57(11), 1313–1323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.024. CrossRefPubMed
Fayyad, J., De Graaf, R., Kessler, R., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., Demyttenaere, K., et al. (2007). Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 402–409. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034389. CrossRefPubMed
*Fazio, L. T. (2008). Impact of pregnancy, delivery, and infancy complications on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (69), ProQuest Information & Learning, USA.
Fiscella, K., Franks, P., M.R., G., & Clancy, C. M. (2008). Inequality in quality: Addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 2579–2584. CrossRef
*Frederick, M. J. (2012). Birth weight predicts scores on the ADHD Self-Report Scale and attitudes towards casual sex in college men: A short-term life history strategy? Evolutionary Psychology, 10(2), 342–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491201000212
*Galera, C., Cote, S. M., Bouvard, M. P., Pingault, J. B., Melchior, M., Michel, G., … Tremblay, R. E. (2011). Early risk factors for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention trajectories from age 17 months to 8 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(12), 1267–1275. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.138
*Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2007). Direct and passive prenatal nicotine exposure and the development of externalizing psychopathology. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38(4), 255–269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-007-0059-4
*Groen-Blokhuis, M. M., Middeldorp, C. M., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., & Boomsma, D. I. (2011). Evidence for a causal association of low birth weight and attention problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(12), 1247–1254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.090.007
*Grunau, R. E., Whitfield, M. F., & Fay, T. B. (2004). Psychosocial and academic characteristics of extremely low birth weight (< or =800 g) adolescents who are free of major impairment compared with term-born control subjects. Pediatrics, 114(6), e725–732. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-0932
Gualtieri, C. T., & Johnson, L. G. (2005). ADHD: is objective diagnosis possible? Psychiatry (Edgmont), 2(11), 44–53.
*Hack, M., Youngstrom, E. A., Cartar, L., Schluchter, M., Taylor, H. G., Flannery, D., … Borawski, E. (2004). Behavioral outcomes and evidence of psychopathology among very low birth weight infants at age 20 years. Pediatrics, 114(4), 932–940. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2003-1017-L
*Halmøy, A., Klungsøyr, K., Skjærven, R., & Haavik, J. (2012). Pre- and perinatal risk factors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 71(5), 474–481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.11.013
*Hanc, T., Slopien, A., Wolanczyk, T., Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M., Szwed, A., Czapla, Z., … Cieslik, J. (2015). ADHD and overweight in boys: cross-sectional study with birth weight as a controlled factor. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(1), 41–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0531-1
*Hanke, C., Lohaus, A., Gawrilow, C., Hartke, I., Kohler, B., & Leonhardt, A. (2003). Preschool development of very low birth weight children born 1994–1995. European Journal of Pediatrics, 162(3), 159–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-002-1127-1
*Hatch, B., Healey, D. M., & Halperin, J. M. (2014). Associations between birth weight and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity: Indirect effects via primary neuropsychological functions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(4), 384–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12168
*Heinonen, K., Raikkonen, K., Pesonen, A. K., Andersson, S., Kajantie, E., Eriksson, J. G., … Lano, A. (2011). Trajectories of growth and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a longitudinal study. BMC Pediatrics, 11, 84. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-84
Hinshaw, S. P. (2002). Is ADHD an impairing condition in childhood and adolescence? In P. S. Jensen & J. R. Cooper (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: State of the science-best practices. Civic Research Institute: Kingston.
*Huang, J. H., Huang, H. L., Chen, H. L., Lin, L. C., Tseng, H. I., & Kao, T. J. (2012). Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 28(7), 390–396. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjms.2012.020.006
*Hultman, C. M., Torrång, A., Tuvblad, C., Cnattingius, S., Larsson, J.-O., & Lichtenstein, P. (2007). Birth weight and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in childhood and early adolescence: a prospective Swedish twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(3), 370–377. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi0.0000246059.62706.22
*Indredavik, M. S., Vik, T., Evensen, K. A., Skranes, J., Taraldsen, G., & Brubakk, A. M. (2010). Perinatal risk and psychiatric outcome in adolescents born preterm with very low birth weight or term small for gestational age. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31(4), 286–294. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181d7b1d3
*Jackson, D. B., & Beaver, K. M. (2015). Sibling differences in low birth weight, dopaminergic polymorphisms, and ADHD symptomatology: evidence of GxE. Psychiatry Research, 226(2–3), 467–473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.01.025
*Jaspers, M., de Winter, A. F., Buitelaar, J. K., Verhulst, F. C., Reijneveld, S. A., & Hartman, C. A. (2013). Early childhood assessments of community pediatric professionals predict autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(1), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9653-4
*Johnson-Cramer, N. L. (1999). Assessment of school-aged children with comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and low birth weight classifications. (59), ProQuest Information & Learning, USA.
*Kadziela-Olech, H., & Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, J. (2005). The duration of breastfeeding and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku, 50, 302–306.
*Kelly, Y. J., Nazroo, J. Y., McMunn, A., Boreham, R., & Marmot, M. (2001). Birthweight and behavioural problems in children: a modifiable effect? International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(1), 88–94.
Kinzler, W., & Vintzileos, A. (2008). Fetal growth restriction: a modern apporach. Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 20(2), 125. CrossRef
Kitchen, W. H. (1968). The relationship between birth weight and gestational age in an australian hospital population. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 4(1), 29–37. CrossRef
*Knopik, V. S., Sparrow, E. P., Madden, P. A. F., Bucholz, K. K., Hudziak, J. J., Reich, W., … Heath, A. C. (2005). Contributions of parental alcoholism, prenatal substance exposure, and genetic transmission to child ADHD risk: A female twin study. Psychological Medicine, 35(5), 625–635. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291704004155
*Kreppner, J. M., O'Connor, T. G., & Rutter, M. (2001). Can inattention/overactivity be an institutional deprivation syndrome? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(6), 513–528.
Lahey, B. B., & Willcutt, E. G. (2002). Validity of the diagnosis and dimensions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In P. S. Jensen & J. R. Cooper (Eds.), Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: State of the science-best practices (pp. 1–23). Kingston: Civic Research Institute.
*Lahti, J., Räikkönen, K., Kajantie, E., Heinonen, K., Pesonen, A. K., Järvenpää, A. L., & Strandberg, T. (2006). Small body size at birth and behavioural symptoms of ADHD in children aged five to six years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(11), 1167–1174. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01661.x
*Langley, K., Holmans, P. A., van den Bree, M. B. M., & Thapar, A. (2007). Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: Investigation in a clinical sample. BMC Psychiatry, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-7-26
*Langley, K., Fowler, T., Ford, T., Thapar, A. K., van den Bree, M., Harold, G., … Thapar, A. (2010). Adolescent clinical outcomes for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(3), 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.109.066274
Lara, C., Fayyad, J., de Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Angermeyer, M., et al. (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 65(1), 46–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.100.005. CrossRefPubMed
Larsson, H., Sariaslan, A., Langstrom, N., D'Onofrio, B., & Lichtenstein, P. (2014). Family income in early childhood and subsequent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a quasi-experimental study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(5), 428–435. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12140. CrossRefPubMed
Leopold, D. R., Christopher, M. E., Burns, G. L., Becker, S. P., Olson, R. K., & Willcutt, E. G. (2016). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sluggish cognitive tempo throughout childhood: temporal invariance and stability from preschool through ninth grade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12505.
Linnet, K. M., Dalsgaard, S., Obel, C., Wisborg, K., Henriksen, T. B., Rodriguez, A., et al. (2003). Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6), 1028–1040. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.6.1028. CrossRefPubMed
*Linnet, K. M., Wisborg, K., Obel, C., Secher, N. J., Thomsen, P. H., Agerbo, E., & Henriksen, T. B. (2005). Smoking during pregnancy and the risk for hyperkinetic disorder in offspring. Pediatrics, 116(2), 462–467. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2054
Lunde, A., Melve, K. K., Gjessing, H. K., Skjaerven, R., & Irgens, L. M. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and gestational age by use of population-based parent-offspring data. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(7), 734–741. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwk107. CrossRefPubMed
*McCormick, M. C., Gortmaker, S. L., & Sobol, A. M. (1990). Very low birth weight children: behavior problems and school difficulty in a national sample. The Journal of Pediatrics, 117(5), 687–693.
*McGrath, M. M., Sullivan, M., Devin, J., Fontes-Murphy, M., Barcelos, S., DePalma, J. L., & Faraone, S. (2005). Early precursors of low attention and hyperactivity in a preterm sample at age four. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 28(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/01460860590913945
*Melchior, M., Hersi, R., van der Waerden, J., Larroque, B., Saurel-Cubizolles, M. J., Chollet, A., & Galera, C. (2015). Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy and children's socio-emotional development at age 5: the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study. European Psychiatry, 30(5), 562–568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.030.005
Mick, E., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Sayer, J., & Kleinman, S. (2002a). Case-control study of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and maternal smoking, alcohol use, and drug use during pregnancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(4), 378–385. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200204000-00009. CrossRefPubMed
*Mick, E., Biederman, J., Prince, J., Fischer, M. J., & Faraone, S. V. (2002b). Impact of low birth weight on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200202000-00004
Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(9), 1138–1142. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.9.1138. CrossRefPubMed
Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., & Jones, J. (1998). Further evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: findings from a high-risk sample of siblings. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(3), 352–358. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2703_11. CrossRefPubMed
*Minde, K., Webb, G., & Sykes, D. (1968). Studies on the hyperactive child. VI. Prenatal and paranatal factors associated with hyperactivity. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 10(3), 355–363.
*Mitchell, E. A., Aman, M. G., Turbott, S. H., & Manku, M. (1987). Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clinical Pediatrics(Phila), 26(8), 406–411.
*Momany, A. M., Kamradt, J. M., Ullsperger, J. M., Elmore, A. L., Nigg, J., & Nikolas, M. (2017). Sex moderates the impact of birth weight on childhood externalizing psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(2), 244–256. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000238.
*Morales, M. R., Polizzi, C., Sulliotti, G., Mascolino, C., & Perricone, G. (2013). Early precursors of low attention and hyperactivity in moderately and very preterm children at preschool age. Pediatr Rep, 5(4), e18. https://doi.org/10.4081/pr.2013.e18
Morgan, J. E., Loo, S. K., & Lee, S. S. (2016). Neurocognitive Functioning Mediates the Prospective Association of Birth Weight With Youth ADHD Symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2016.1183498.
Mueller, B. R., & Bale, T. L. (2008). Sex-specific programming of offspring emotionality after stress early in pregnancy. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(36), 9055–9065. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1424-08.2008. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
*Murray, E., Matijasevich, A., Santos, I. S., Barros, A. J. D., Anselmi, L., Barros, F. C., & Stein, A. (2015). Sex differences in the association between foetal growth and child attention at age four: Specific vulnerability of girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(12), 1380–1388. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12422.
*Nadeau, L., Tessier, R., Boivin, M., Lefebvre, F., & Robaey, P. (2003). Extremely Premature and Very Low Birthweight Infants: A Double Hazard Population? Social Development, 12(2), 235–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-95070.00231
National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/minoritytrends/
*Nosarti, C., Allin, M. P., Frangou, S., Rifkin, L., & Murray, R. M. (2005). Hyperactivity in adolescents born very preterm is associated with decreased caudate volume. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 661–666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.120.003
*O'Callaghan, M. J., & Harvey, J. M. (1997). Biological predictors and co-morbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in extremely low birthweight infants at school. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 33(6), 491–496.
*Offord, D. R., Sullivan, K., Allen, N., & Abrams, N. (1979). Delinquency and hyperactivity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167(12), 734–741. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-197912000-00003
Ong, K. K. (2007). Catch-up growth in small for gestational age babies: good or bad? Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity, 14(1), 30–34. https://doi.org/10.1097/MED.0b013e328013da6c. CrossRefPubMed
Ornoy, A. (2005). Growth and neurodevelopmental outcome of children born to mothers with pregestational and gestational diabetes. Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, 3(2), 104–113. PubMed
Ornoy, A., Ratzon, N., Greenbaum, C., Wolf, A., & Dulitzky, M. (2001). School-age children born to diabetic mothers and to mothers with gestational diabetes exhibit a high rate of inattention and fine and gross motor impairment. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 14(Suppl 1), 681–689.
*Parker, S. E., Collett, B. R., Speltz, M. L., & Werler, M. M. (2016). Prenatal smoking and childhood behavior problems: is the association mediated by birth weight? Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/s2040174416000039
Pelham, W. E., Fabiano, G. A., & Massetti, G. M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 449–476. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3403_5. CrossRefPubMed
*Perkinson-Gloor, N., Hagmann-von Arx, P., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Grob, A., Weber, P., & Lemola, S. (2015). The role of sleep and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis for behavioral and emotional problems in very preterm children during middle childhood. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 60, 141–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.100.005.
*Pettersson, E., Sjolander, A., Almqvist, C., Anckarsater, H., D'Onofrio, B. M., Lichtenstein, P., & Larsson, H. (2015). Birth weight as an independent predictor of ADHD symptoms: a within-twin pair analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(4), 453–459. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12299
Powe, T. J., Doherty, B. J., Panichelli-Mindel, S. M., Karustis, J. L., Eiraldi, R. B., Anastopoulos, A. D., & DuPaul, G. J. (1998). The predictive validity of parent and teacher reports of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 20(1), 57–81. CrossRef
*Razza, R. A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2016). Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: moderation by low birth weight. Journal of Child and Family Studies. No Pagination Specified. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0410-0
*Rice, F., Harold, G. T., Boivin, J., van den Bree, M., Hay, D. F., & Thapar, A. (2010). The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: Disentangling environmental and inherited influences. Psychological Medicine, 40(2), 335–345. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709005911
*Rickards, A. L., Kelly, E. A., Doyle, L. W., & Callanan, C. (2001). Cognition, academic progress, behavior and self-concept at 14 years of very low birth weight children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 22(1), 11–18.
Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638–641. CrossRef
*Ross, G., Lipper, E., & Auld, P. A. (1992). Hand preference, prematurity and developmental outcome at school age. Neuropsychologia, 30(5), 483–494. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(92)90095-4
*Sasaluxnanon, C., & Kaewpornsawan, T. (2005). Risk factor of birth weight below 2,500 grams and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Thai children. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 88(11), 1514–1518.
*Sato, M., Aotani, H., Hattori, R., & Funato, M. (2004). Behavioral outcome including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder and minor neurological signs in perinatal high-risk newborns at 4–6 years of age with relation to risk factors. Pediatrics International, 46(3), 346–352. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200x.2004.01883.x
Schmidt-Kastner, R., van Os, J., Esquivel, G., Steinbusch, H. W., & Rutten, B. P. (2012). An environmental analysis of genes associated with schizophrenia: hypoxia and vascular factors as interacting elements in the neurodevelopmental model. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(12), 1194–1205. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2011.183. CrossRefPubMed
*Schmitz, M., Denardin, D., Laufer Silva, T., Pianca, T., Hutz, M. H., Faraone, S., & Rohde, L. A. (2006). Smoking during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type: a case-control study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(11), 1338–1345. https://doi.org/10.1097/s0890-8567(09)61916-x
*Sciberras, E., Ukoumunne, O. C., & Efron, D. (2011). Predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged 6–7 years: a national longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(7), 1025–1034. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9504-8
*Scott, M. N., Taylor, H. G., Fristad, M. A., Klein, N., Espy, K. A., Minich, N., & Hack, M. (2012). Behavior disorders in extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children in kindergarten. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(3), 202–213. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182475287
*Sengupta, S. M., Grizenko, N., Schmitz, N., Schwartz, G., Ben Amor, L., Bellingham, J.,. .. Joober, R. (2006). COMT Val108/158Met gene variant, birth weight, and conduct disorder in children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(11), 1363–1369. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi0.0000251212.44491.46
*Simonds, J. F., & Aston, L. A. (1980). Preterm birth, low birth weight, and hyperkinetic behavior in children. Southern Medical Journal, 73(9), 1237–1238.
*Smith, T. F., Anastopoulos, A. D., Garrett, M. E., Arias-Vasquez, A., Franke, B., Oades, R. D., … Ashley-Koch, A. (2014). Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 165(8), 691–704. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32275
*St Sauver, J. L., Barbaresi, W. J., Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Weaver, A. L., & Jacobsen, S. J. (2004). Early life risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 79(9), 1124–1131.
*Strang-Karlsson, S., Räikkönen, K., Pesonen, A.-K., Kajantie, E., Paavonen, E. J., Lahti, J., … Andersson, S. (2008). Very low birth weight and behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood: The Helsinki study of very-low-birth-weight adults. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(10), 1345–1353. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08010085
*Sullivan, M. C., Msall, M. E., & Miller, R. J. (2012). 17-year outcome of preterm infants with diverse neonatal morbidities: Part 1--Impact on physical, neurological, and psychological health status. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 17(3), 226–241. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6155.20120.00337.x
*Sykes, D. H., Hoy, E. A., Bill, J. M., McClure, B. G., Halliday, H. L., & Reid, M. M. (1997). Behavioural adjustment in school of very low birthweight children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(3), 315–325.
*Szatmari, P., Saigal, S., Rosenbaum, P., & Campbell, D. (1993). Psychopathology and adaptive functioning among extremely low birthweight children at eight years of age. Development and Psychopathology, 5(3), 345–357. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004454
*Taylor, H. G., Klein, N., Minich, N. M., & Hack, M. (2000). Middle-school-age outcomes in children with very low birthweight. Child Development, 71(6), 1495–1511.
*Van den Bergh, B. R. H., & Marcoen, A. (2004). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Development, 75(4), 1085–1097. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.20040.00727.x
*Van Hus, J. W., Potharst, E. S., Jeukens-Visser, M., Kok, J. H., & Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A. G. (2014). Motor impairment in very preterm-born children: links with other developmental deficits at 5 years of age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 56(6), 587–594.
*van Mil, N. H., Steegers-Theunissen, R. P., Motazedi, E., Jansen, P. W., Jaddoe, V. W., Steegers, E. A., … Tiemeier, H. (2015). Low and high birth weight and the risk of child attention problems. The Journal of Pediatrics, 166(4), 862–869.e861–863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.075
Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3), 1–48. CrossRef
Visser, S. N., Danielson, M. L., Bitsko, R. H., Holbrook, J. R., Kogan, M. D., Ghandour, R. M., et al. (2014). Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003–2011. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(1), 34–46 e32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.090.001. CrossRefPubMed
*Wagner, A. I., Schmidt, N. L., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Leavitt, L. A., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2009). The limited effects of obstetrical and neonatal complications on conduct and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30(3), 217–225. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181a7ee98
Wehmeier, P. M., Schacht, A., & Barkley, R. A. (2010). Social and emotional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact on quality of life. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(3), 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.090.009. CrossRefPubMed
Wiggs, K., Elmore, A. L., Nigg, J. T., & Nikolas, M. A. (2016). Pre- and Perinatal Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Does Neuropsychological Weakness Explain the Link? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0142-z.
*Wiles, N. J., Peters, T. J., Heron, J., Gunnell, D., Emond, A., & Lewis, G. (2006). Fetal growth and childhood behavioral problems: results from the ALSPAC cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(9), 829–837. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwj108
*Williams, N. A. (2010). Short and long-term effects of birth weight and neonatal medical complications on children's emotional and behavioral outcomes. (70), ProQuest Information & Learning, USA.
World Health Organization. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization. (2009). Demographic and socioeconomic statistics.
*Yang, P., Chen, Y. H., Yen, C. F., & Chen, H. L. (2015). Psychiatric diagnoses, emotional-behavioral symptoms and functional outcomes in adolescents born preterm with very low birth weights. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 46(3), 358–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0475-1
- A Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Birth Weight and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Allison M. Momany
Jaclyn M. Kamradt
Molly A. Nikolas
- Springer US