Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Although great strides have recently been made in our understanding of relational aggression and its consequences, one significant limitation has been the lack of prospective studies. The present research addressed this issue by identifying and assessing groups of relationally aggressive, physically aggressive, relationally plus physically aggressive (co-morbid), and nonaggressive children during their third grade year in elementary school and then reassessing them a year later, during fourth-grade (N = 224, 113 girls). Two aspects of social–psychological adjustment were assessed during both assessment periods including internalizing difficulties (i.e., withdrawal, depression/anxiety, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problems (i.e., aggressive behavior, delinquency). It was revealed that the strongest predictor of future social–psychological adjustment problems and increases in these problems from third to fourth was the combination of relational and physical aggression. Relational aggression also contributed unique information, relative to physical aggression, in the prediction of future maladjustment. Implications of these findings for future research and prevention efforts, particularly for aggressive girls, are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Teacher's Report Forms and 1991 Profile. Burlington, Vermont: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
Bardone, A. M., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 811–829. CrossRef
Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukianen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Development trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117–127. CrossRef
Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Ferguson, L. L., & Gariepy, J. L. (1989). Growth and aggression: 1. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320–330. CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analyses for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). The development of aggression and antisocial behavior. In W. Damon (Editor-in-Chief) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology, 5th ed., Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development. New York: Wiley.
Compas, B. E., & Hammen, C. L. (1994). Child and adolescent depression: Covariation and co-morbidity in development. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 225–267). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crick, N. R. (1995). Relational aggression: The role of intent attributions, feelings of distress, and provocation type. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 313–322.
Crick, N. R. (1996). The role of overt aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behavior in children's social adjustment. Child Development, 33, 610–617.
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101. CrossRef
Crick, N. R., Werner, N. E., Casas, J. F., O'Brien, K. M., Nelson, D. A., Grotpeter, J. K., et al. (1999). Childhood aggression and gender: A new look at an old problem. In D. Bernstein (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press.
Foster, S. L. (in press). Aggression and antisocial behavior. To appear in D. J. Bell, S. L. Foster, & E. J. Mash (Eds.), Behavioral and emotional problems in girls. Kluwer.
Giordano, P. C., & Cernkovich, S. A. (1997). Gender and antisocial behavior. In D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior. New York:Wiley.
Henington, C., Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Thompson, B. (1998). The role of relational aggression in identifying aggressive boys and girls. Journal of School Psychology, 36, 457–477. CrossRef
Kashani, J. H., Cantwell, D. P., Shekim, W. O., & Reid, J. (1982). Major depressive disorder in children admitted to an inpatient community mental health center. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 671–672. PubMed
Leff, S., Costigan, T. E., Eiraldi, R., & Power, T. J. (2001). An examination of children's aggressive behaviors and social skills as a function of ADHD subtype and gender. Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society of Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, MN.
McNeilly-Choque, M., Hart, C. H., Robinson, C. C., Nelson, L. J., & Olsen, S. F. (1996). Overt and relational aggression on the playground: Correspondence among different informants. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 11, 47–67. CrossRef
Nottlemann, E. D., & Jensen, P. S. (1995). Co-morbidity of disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental perspectives. In T. H. Ollendick, & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 109–155). New York: Plenum Press.
Ostrov, J. M., & Keating, C. F. (2004). Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study. Social Development, 13, 255–277. CrossRef
Robins, L. (1986). The consequences of conduct disorder in girls. In D. Olweus, J. Block, & M. Radke-Yarrow (Eds.), Development of antisocial and prosocial behavior: Research, theories, and issues. New York: Academic Press.
Zahn-Waxler, C. (1993). Warriors and worriers: Gender and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 79–89. CrossRef
Zahn-Waxler, C. (2000). The development of empathy, guilt, and internalization of distress. In R. Davidson (Ed.), Wisconsin Symposium on Emotion: Vol. 1. Anxiety, depression, and emotion (pp. 222–265). New York: Oxford University Press.
- A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social–Psychological Adjustment
Nicki R. Crick
Jamie M. Ostrov
Nicole E. Werner
- Springer US