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27-02-2021 | Original Article

A Cognitive Control Training as Add-On Treatment to Usual Care for Depressed Inpatients

Auteurs: Gina R. A. Ferrari, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Mike Rinck, Ineke Demeyer, Rudi De Raedt, Sylvia Beisel, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Eni S. Becker

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 5/2021

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Abstract

Background

There is a growing body of research supporting the potential therapeutic value of the Cognitive Control Training (CCT) for depression, even though more research including a control condition is necessary to investigate its working mechanisms.

Methods

The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the adjunctive effects of CCT to treatment-as-usual, compared to a sham-training, in patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Hundred-and-fifteen inpatients were randomly assigned to complete ten sessions of either an active working-memory based CCT (n = 56) or a comparable sham-training (n = 59). Changes in depressive symptoms and rumination were assessed from baseline to post-training, and at 1 year follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included alternative indices of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, state-rumination in response to a worry induction, a cognitive transfer task and self-reports of work-status and well-being at 1 year follow-up.

Results

Our results show no evidence for short-term beneficial effects of CCT in depressed inpatients when added to TAU.

Conclusion

Although other studies suggest that CCT may hold potential as an add-on intervention for depression, our findings point to the importance of investigating individual differences and conditions predicting training response.
Voetnoten
1
It should be noted that the pre-registration wrongly mentioned BDI < 11 as an inclusion criterium. Moreover, we have added the BDI as a primary outcome measure, even though it was listed as a secondary outcome measure in the pre-registration. Based on new insights in the field of cognitive remediation, we also consider depressive symptoms and emotion regulation as primary outcome variables, and changes in rumination as a potential mediator. Finally, after an initial pilot test, it became clear that the burden of the pre-registered original protocol was too high for the patients. Therefore, the Internal Shift Task was replaced by the Random Number Generation task.
 
2
Results of the analyses on the RSQ subscale Distraction may be affected by the significant baseline between-group difference on this scale.
 
3
We had planned to use both self-judgments and rater-judgments of the intrusions. However, the inter-rater reliability was so low (none to slight or fair agreement for the different phases of the task) that only the self-judgments could be used.
 
4
Due to missing data on single items of both subscales, the n of the two subscales differs slightly (Expectancy: Active-Trainingn = 47, Sham-Trainingn = 57, Credibility: Active-Trainingn = 50, Sham-Trainingn = 57).
 
5
Due to the small sample-size the analysis of the BDI-II follow-up data was based on, this analysis is not considered reliable.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
A Cognitive Control Training as Add-On Treatment to Usual Care for Depressed Inpatients
Auteurs
Gina R. A. Ferrari
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt
Mike Rinck
Ineke Demeyer
Rudi De Raedt
Sylvia Beisel
Johannes Lindenmeyer
Eni S. Becker
Publicatiedatum
27-02-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 5/2021
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10197-y

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