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02-03-2017 | Original Paper | Uitgave 6/2017 Open Access

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2017

A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders > Uitgave 6/2017
Auteurs:
Elena Sokolova, Anoek M. Oerlemans, Nanda N. Rommelse, Perry Groot, Catharina A. Hartman, Jeffrey C. Glennon, Tom Claassen, Tom Heskes, Jan K. Buitelaar
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s10803-017-3083-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Elena Sokolova and Anoek M. Oerlemans are joint first authors on this work.

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls, to infer a structural equation model using a causal discovery algorithm. Three distinct pathways between ASD and ADHD were identified: (1) from impulsivity to difficulties with understanding social information, (2) from hyperactivity to stereotypic, repetitive behavior, (3) a pairwise pathway between inattention, difficulties with understanding social information, and verbal IQ. These findings may inform future studies on understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the overlap between ASD and ADHD.

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Extra materiaal
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 KB)
10803_2017_3083_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 267 KB)
10803_2017_3083_MOESM2_ESM.docx
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