Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

27-10-2017 | Artikel

20 jaar Neuropraxis: ‘Een hartinfarct in de hersenen’

Auteur: Gert Kwakkel

Gepubliceerd in: Neuropraxis | Uitgave 6/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Samenvatting

Twintig jaar geleden publiceerden Robert Wagenaar en ik, in het eerste nummer van Neuropraxis, een artikel genaamd ‘Een hartinfarct in de hersenen’. Sindsdien is er veel veranderd. Er is aandacht gekomen voor de preventie van een beroerte door antirookcampagnes, het stimuleren van bewegen en de behandeling van hoge bloeddruk. Daarnaast zijn er twee nieuwe curatieve therapieën ontwikkeld: de trombolyse en de trombectomie van de grote hersenvaten. Beide therapieën dienen zo snel mogelijk, in ieder geval binnen de eerste uren na een herseninfarct, plaats te vinden. Dit maakt dat, net als bij een hartinfarct, vroege erkenning van een beroerte en een snelle behandeling bij opname op de Spoedeisende Hulp, veel blijvende hersenschade kan voorkomen. De neurorevalidatie zelf is inderdaad, zoals 20 jaar geleden voorspeld, maatwerk, waarbij de intensiteit van het oefenen en het trainen van de gewenste vaardigheden, het liefst in eigen woonomgeving, bepalend blijken te zijn. Dankzij biomechanisch onderzoek met herhaalde metingen in de tijd, is veel beter zicht ontstaan op wát patiënten precies leren en hóe zij leren omgaan met het bestaande functieverlies. De auteur sluit deze terugblik af met zijn visie voor de komende 20 jaar.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Wagenaar RC, Kwakkel G. Een herseninfarct in de hersenen: revalidatie van motoriek na een CVA. Neuropraxis. 1997;1:32–6.CrossRef Wagenaar RC, Kwakkel G. Een herseninfarct in de hersenen: revalidatie van motoriek na een CVA. Neuropraxis. 1997;1:32–6.CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Hacke W, Brott T, Caplan L, et al. Thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke: controlled trials and clinical experience. Neurology. 1999;53(7):3–14. Hacke W, Brott T, Caplan L, et al. Thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke: controlled trials and clinical experience. Neurology. 1999;53(7):3–14.
5.
go back to reference Emberson J, Lees KR, Lyden P, et al. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2014;384(9958):1929–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Emberson J, Lees KR, Lyden P, et al. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2014;384(9958):1929–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
6.
go back to reference Smith EE, Kummer von. Door to needle times in acute ischemic stroke: how low can we go? Neurology. 2012;79:1.CrossRef Smith EE, Kummer von. Door to needle times in acute ischemic stroke: how low can we go? Neurology. 2012;79:1.CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Schaik SM van, Scott S, Lau LM de, et al. Short door-to-needle times in acute ischemic stroke and prospective identification of its delaying factors. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra. 2015;5(2):75–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Schaik SM van, Scott S, Lau LM de, et al. Short door-to-needle times in acute ischemic stroke and prospective identification of its delaying factors. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra. 2015;5(2):75–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
8.
go back to reference Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D, et al. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015;1;372(1):11–20.CrossRef Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D, et al. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015;1;372(1):11–20.CrossRef
9.
go back to reference Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L, et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010;376(9753):1670–81.CrossRef Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L, et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010;376(9753):1670–81.CrossRef
10.
go back to reference Hennerici MG, Kern R, Szabo K. Non-pharmacological strategies for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(6):572–84.CrossRefPubMed Hennerici MG, Kern R, Szabo K. Non-pharmacological strategies for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(6):572–84.CrossRefPubMed
11.
go back to reference Cox AM, McKevitt C, Rudd AG, Wolfe CD. Socioeconomic status and stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(2):181–8.CrossRefPubMed Cox AM, McKevitt C, Rudd AG, Wolfe CD. Socioeconomic status and stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5(2):181–8.CrossRefPubMed
12.
go back to reference Langhorne P, Wagenaar R, Partridge C. Physiotherapy after stroke: more is better? Physiother Res Int. 1996;1(2):75–88.CrossRefPubMed Langhorne P, Wagenaar R, Partridge C. Physiotherapy after stroke: more is better? Physiother Res Int. 1996;1(2):75–88.CrossRefPubMed
13.
go back to reference Langhorne P, Duncan P. Does the organization of postacute stroke care really matter? Stroke. 2001 Jan;32(1):268-74.CrossRefPubMed Langhorne P, Duncan P. Does the organization of postacute stroke care really matter? Stroke. 2001 Jan;32(1):268-74.CrossRefPubMed
14.
go back to reference Otterman NM, Wees PJ van der, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Physical therapists’ guideline adherence on early mobilization and intensity of practice at Dutch acute stroke units: a country-wide survey. Stroke. 2012;43(9):2395–401.CrossRefPubMed Otterman NM, Wees PJ van der, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Physical therapists’ guideline adherence on early mobilization and intensity of practice at Dutch acute stroke units: a country-wide survey. Stroke. 2012;43(9):2395–401.CrossRefPubMed
15.
go back to reference Middleton S, McElduff P, Ward J, et al. Implementation of evidence-based treatment protocols to manage fever, hyperglycaemia, and swallowing dysfunction in acute stroke (QASC): a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9804):1699–706.CrossRefPubMed Middleton S, McElduff P, Ward J, et al. Implementation of evidence-based treatment protocols to manage fever, hyperglycaemia, and swallowing dysfunction in acute stroke (QASC): a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9804):1699–706.CrossRefPubMed
16.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Kollen BJ. Predicting activities after stroke: what is clinically relevant? Int J Stroke. 2013;8(1):25–32.CrossRefPubMed Kwakkel G, Kollen BJ. Predicting activities after stroke: what is clinically relevant? Int J Stroke. 2013;8(1):25–32.CrossRefPubMed
17.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Kollen B, Twisk J. Impact of time on improvement of outcome after stroke. Stroke. 2006;37(9):2348–53.CrossRefPubMed Kwakkel G, Kollen B, Twisk J. Impact of time on improvement of outcome after stroke. Stroke. 2006;37(9):2348–53.CrossRefPubMed
18.
go back to reference Bernhardt J, Borschmann K, Boyd L, et al. Moving rehabilitation research forward: developing consensus statements for rehabilitation and recovery research. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(8):694–8.CrossRefPubMed Bernhardt J, Borschmann K, Boyd L, et al. Moving rehabilitation research forward: developing consensus statements for rehabilitation and recovery research. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(8):694–8.CrossRefPubMed
19.
go back to reference Bernhardt J, Hayward KS, Kwakkel G, et al. Agreed definitions and a shared vision for new standards in stroke recovery research: The Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Taskforce. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):444–50.CrossRefPubMed Bernhardt J, Hayward KS, Kwakkel G, et al. Agreed definitions and a shared vision for new standards in stroke recovery research: The Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Taskforce. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):444–50.CrossRefPubMed
20.
go back to reference Douiri A, Grace J, Sarker SJ, et al. Patient-specific prediction of functional recovery after stroke. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):539–48.CrossRefPubMed Douiri A, Grace J, Sarker SJ, et al. Patient-specific prediction of functional recovery after stroke. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):539–48.CrossRefPubMed
21.
go back to reference Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration. Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 11;(9):CD000197. Stroke Unit Trialists’ Collaboration. Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Sep 11;(9):CD000197.
22.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Wagenaar RC, Koelman TW, Lankhorst GJ, Koetsier JC. Effects of intensity of rehabilitation after stroke. A research synthesis. Stroke. 1997;28(8):1550–6.CrossRefPubMed Kwakkel G, Wagenaar RC, Koelman TW, Lankhorst GJ, Koetsier JC. Effects of intensity of rehabilitation after stroke. A research synthesis. Stroke. 1997;28(8):1550–6.CrossRefPubMed
23.
go back to reference Lohse KR, Lang CE, Boyd LA. Is more better? Using metadata to explore dose-response relationships in stroke rehabilitation. Stroke. 2014;45(7):2053–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lohse KR, Lang CE, Boyd LA. Is more better? Using metadata to explore dose-response relationships in stroke rehabilitation. Stroke. 2014;45(7):2053–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
24.
go back to reference Veerbeek JM, Koolstra M, Ket JC, et al. Effects of augmented exercise therapy on outcome of gait and gait-related activities in the first 6 months after stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke. 2011;42(11):3311–5.CrossRefPubMed Veerbeek JM, Koolstra M, Ket JC, et al. Effects of augmented exercise therapy on outcome of gait and gait-related activities in the first 6 months after stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke. 2011;42(11):3311–5.CrossRefPubMed
25.
go back to reference Veerbeek JM, Wegen E van, Peppen R van, et al.What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(2).PubMedPubMedCentral Veerbeek JM, Wegen E van, Peppen R van, et al.What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(2).PubMedPubMedCentral
26.
27.
go back to reference Wagenaar RC. Functional recovery after stroke. Amsterdam: VU University Press; 1990. Wagenaar RC. Functional recovery after stroke. Amsterdam: VU University Press; 1990.
28.
go back to reference Wagenaar RC, Meijer OG, Wieringen PC van, et al. The functional recovery of stroke: a comparison between neuro-developmental treatment and the Brunnstrom method. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1990;22(1):1–8.PubMed Wagenaar RC, Meijer OG, Wieringen PC van, et al. The functional recovery of stroke: a comparison between neuro-developmental treatment and the Brunnstrom method. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1990;22(1):1–8.PubMed
29.
go back to reference Wagenaar RC, Beek WJ. Hemiplegic gait: a kinematic analysis using walking speed as a basis. J Biomech. 1992;25(9):1007–15.CrossRefPubMed Wagenaar RC, Beek WJ. Hemiplegic gait: a kinematic analysis using walking speed as a basis. J Biomech. 1992;25(9):1007–15.CrossRefPubMed
30.
go back to reference Kollen BJ, Lennon S, Lyons B, et al. The effectiveness of the Bobath concept in stroke rehabilitation: what is the evidence? Stroke. 2009;40(4):e89–e97.CrossRefPubMed Kollen BJ, Lennon S, Lyons B, et al.  The effectiveness of the Bobath concept in stroke rehabilitation: what is the evidence? Stroke. 2009;40(4):e89–e97.CrossRefPubMed
31.
go back to reference Peppen RP van, Kwakkel G, Wood-Dauphinee S, Hendriks HJ, Wees PJ van der, Dekker J. The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: what’s the evidence? Clin Rehabil. 2004;18(8):833–62.CrossRefPubMed Peppen RP van, Kwakkel G, Wood-Dauphinee S, Hendriks HJ, Wees PJ van der, Dekker J. The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: what’s the evidence? Clin Rehabil. 2004;18(8):833–62.CrossRefPubMed
32.
go back to reference Veerbeek JM, Langbroek-Amersfoort AC, Wegen EE van, et al. Effects of robot-assisted therapy for the upper limb after stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(2):107–21.CrossRefPubMed Veerbeek JM, Langbroek-Amersfoort AC, Wegen EE van, et al. Effects of robot-assisted therapy for the upper limb after stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(2):107–21.CrossRefPubMed
33.
go back to reference Saposnik G, Cohen LG, Mamdani M, et al. Stroke outcomes research Canada. Efficacy and safety of non-immersive virtual reality exercising in stroke rehabilitation (EVREST): a randomised, multicentre, single-blind, controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(10):1019–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Saposnik G, Cohen LG, Mamdani M, et al. Stroke outcomes research Canada. Efficacy and safety of non-immersive virtual reality exercising in stroke rehabilitation (EVREST): a randomised, multicentre, single-blind, controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(10):1019–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
35.
go back to reference Mehrholz J, Elsner B, Werner C, Kugler J, Pohl M. Electromechanical-assisted training for walking after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 25;(7):CD006185. Mehrholz J, Elsner B, Werner C, Kugler J, Pohl M. Electromechanical-assisted training for walking after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 25;(7):CD006185.
36.
go back to reference Geurts AC, Haart M de, Nes IJ van, Duysens J. A review of standing balance recovery from stroke. Gait Posture. 2005;22(3):267–81.CrossRefPubMed Geurts AC, Haart M de, Nes IJ van, Duysens J. A review of standing balance recovery from stroke. Gait Posture. 2005;22(3):267–81.CrossRefPubMed
37.
go back to reference Buma F, Kwakkel G, Ramsey N. Understanding upper limb recovery after stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(6):707–22.PubMed Buma F, Kwakkel G, Ramsey N. Understanding upper limb recovery after stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(6):707–22.PubMed
38.
go back to reference Buurke JH, Nene AV, Kwakkel G, et al. Recovery of gait after stroke: what changes? Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008;22(6):676–83.CrossRefPubMed Buurke JH, Nene AV, Kwakkel G, et al. Recovery of gait after stroke: what changes? Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008;22(6):676–83.CrossRefPubMed
39.
go back to reference Roerdink M, Beek PJ. Understanding inconsistent step-length asymmetries across hemiplegic stroke patients: impairments and compensatory gait. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2011;25(3):253–8.CrossRefPubMed Roerdink M, Beek PJ. Understanding inconsistent step-length asymmetries across hemiplegic stroke patients: impairments and compensatory gait. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2011;25(3):253–8.CrossRefPubMed
40.
go back to reference Kordelaar J van, Wegen EE van, Nijland RH, et al. Understanding adaptive motor control of the paretic upper limb early poststroke: the EXPLICIT-stroke program. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013;27(9):854–63.CrossRefPubMed Kordelaar J van, Wegen EE van, Nijland RH, et al. Understanding adaptive motor control of the paretic upper limb early poststroke: the EXPLICIT-stroke program. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013;27(9):854–63.CrossRefPubMed
41.
go back to reference Kordelaar J van, Wegen E van, Kwakkel G. Impact of time on quality of motor control of the paretic upper limb after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(2):338–44.CrossRefPubMed Kordelaar J van, Wegen E van, Kwakkel G. Impact of time on quality of motor control of the paretic upper limb after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(2):338–44.CrossRefPubMed
42.
go back to reference Winters C, Wegen EE van, Daffertshofer A, Kwakkel G. Generalizability of the proportional recovery model for the upper extremity after an Ischemic stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015;29(7):614–22.CrossRefPubMed Winters C, Wegen EE van, Daffertshofer A, Kwakkel G. Generalizability of the proportional recovery model for the upper extremity after an Ischemic stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015;29(7):614–22.CrossRefPubMed
43.
go back to reference Winters C, Wegen EE van, Daffertshofer A, Kwakkel G. Generalizability of the maximum proportional recovery rule to Visuospatial neglect early poststroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(4):334–42.CrossRefPubMed Winters C, Wegen EE van, Daffertshofer A, Kwakkel G. Generalizability of the maximum proportional recovery rule to Visuospatial neglect early poststroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(4):334–42.CrossRefPubMed
44.
go back to reference Lazar RM, Minzer B, Antoniello D, et al. Improvement in aphasia scores after stroke is well predicted by initial severity. Stroke. 2010;41(7):1485–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lazar RM, Minzer B, Antoniello D, et al. Improvement in aphasia scores after stroke is well predicted by initial severity. Stroke. 2010;41(7):1485–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
45.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Winters C, Wegen EE van, et al. Effects of unilateral upper limb training in two distinct prognostic groups early after stroke: the EXPLICIT-stroke randomized clinical trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016;30(9):804–16.CrossRefPubMed Kwakkel G, Winters C, Wegen EE van, et al. Effects of unilateral upper limb training in two distinct prognostic groups early after stroke: the EXPLICIT-stroke randomized clinical trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016;30(9):804–16.CrossRefPubMed
46.
go back to reference Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, Frackowiak RS. Neural correlates of motor recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain. 2003;126(11):2476–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, Frackowiak RS. Neural correlates of motor recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain. 2003;126(11):2476–96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
47.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Kollen B, Lindeman E. Understanding the pattern of functional recovery after stroke: facts and theories. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2004;22(3):281–99.PubMed Kwakkel G, Kollen B, Lindeman E. Understanding the pattern of functional recovery after stroke: facts and theories. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2004;22(3):281–99.PubMed
48.
go back to reference Ward NS. Restoring brain function after stroke – bridging the gap between animals and humans. Nat Rev Neurol. 2017;13(4):244–55.CrossRefPubMed Ward NS. Restoring brain function after stroke – bridging the gap between animals and humans. Nat Rev Neurol. 2017;13(4):244–55.CrossRefPubMed
49.
go back to reference Soteropoulos DS, Edgley SA, Baker SN. Lack of evidence for direct corticospinal contributions to control of the ipsilateral forelimb in monkey. J Neurosci. 2011;31(31):11208–19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Soteropoulos DS, Edgley SA, Baker SN. Lack of evidence for direct corticospinal contributions to control of the ipsilateral forelimb in monkey. J Neurosci. 2011;31(31):11208–19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
50.
go back to reference Nijland RH, Wegen EE van, Harmeling-van der Wel BC, et al. Presence of finger extension and shoulder abduction within 72 hours after stroke predicts functional recovery: early prediction of functional outcome after stroke: the EPOS cohort study. Stroke. 2010;41(4):745–50.CrossRefPubMed Nijland RH, Wegen EE van, Harmeling-van der Wel BC, et al. Presence of finger extension and shoulder abduction within 72 hours after stroke predicts functional recovery: early prediction of functional outcome after stroke: the EPOS cohort study. Stroke. 2010;41(4):745–50.CrossRefPubMed
51.
go back to reference Groisser BN, Copen WA, Singhal AB, et al. Corticospinal tract diffusion abnormalities early after stroke predict motor outcome. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014;28(8):751–60. Erratum in: Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015; 29(3): 296.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Groisser BN, Copen WA, Singhal AB, et al. Corticospinal tract diffusion abnormalities early after stroke predict motor outcome. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014;28(8):751–60. Erratum in: Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015; 29(3): 296.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
52.
go back to reference Stinear C. Prediction of recovery of motor function after stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(12):1228–32.CrossRefPubMed Stinear C. Prediction of recovery of motor function after stroke. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(12):1228–32.CrossRefPubMed
53.
go back to reference Boyd LA, Hayward KS, Ward NS, et al. Biomarkers of stroke recovery: consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):480–93.CrossRefPubMed Boyd LA, Hayward KS, Ward NS, et al. Biomarkers of stroke recovery: consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):480–93.CrossRefPubMed
54.
go back to reference Corbett D, Carmichael ST, Murphy TH, et al. Enhancing the alignment of the preclinical and clinical stroke recovery research pipeline: consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Translational Working Group. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(8):699–707.CrossRefPubMed Corbett D, Carmichael ST, Murphy TH, et al. Enhancing the alignment of the preclinical and clinical stroke recovery research pipeline: consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Translational Working Group. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2017;31(8):699–707.CrossRefPubMed
55.
go back to reference Jolkkonen J, Kwakkel G. Translational hurdles in stroke recovery studies. Transl Stroke Res. 2016;7(4):331–42.CrossRefPubMed Jolkkonen J, Kwakkel G. Translational hurdles in stroke recovery studies. Transl Stroke Res. 2016;7(4):331–42.CrossRefPubMed
56.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Wagenaar RC, Twisk JW, et al. Intensity of leg and arm training after primary middle-cerebral-artery stroke: a randomised trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9174):191–6.CrossRefPubMed Kwakkel G, Wagenaar RC, Twisk JW, et al. Intensity of leg and arm training after primary middle-cerebral-artery stroke: a randomised trial. Lancet. 1999;354(9174):191–6.CrossRefPubMed
57.
go back to reference Winters C, Heymans MW, Wegen EE van, Kwakkel G. How to design clinical rehabilitation trials for the upper paretic limb early post stroke? Trials. 2016;17(1):468.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Winters C, Heymans MW, Wegen EE van, Kwakkel G. How to design clinical rehabilitation trials for the upper paretic limb early post stroke? Trials. 2016;17(1):468.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
58.
go back to reference AVERT Trial Collaboration group. Efficacy and safety of very early mobilisation within 24 h of stroke onset (AVERT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;386(9988):46–55. Erratum in: Lancet. 2015; 386 (9988): 30.CrossRef AVERT Trial Collaboration group. Efficacy and safety of very early mobilisation within 24 h of stroke onset (AVERT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;386(9988):46–55. Erratum in: Lancet. 2015; 386 (9988): 30.CrossRef
59.
go back to reference Winstein CJ, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, et al. Effect of a task-oriented rehabilitation program on upper extremity recovery following motor stroke: the ICARE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(6):571–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Winstein CJ, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, et al. Effect of a task-oriented rehabilitation program on upper extremity recovery following motor stroke: the ICARE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(6):571–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
60.
61.
go back to reference Collaborative Group. Family-led rehabilitation after stroke in India (ATTEND): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017; Aug 5;390(10094):588-99. Collaborative Group. Family-led rehabilitation after stroke in India (ATTEND): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017; Aug 5;390(10094):588-99.
62.
go back to reference Kwakkel G, Lannin NA, Borschmann K, et al. Standardized measurement of sensorimotor recovery in stroke trials: consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):451–61.CrossRefPubMed Kwakkel G, Lannin NA, Borschmann K, et al. Standardized measurement of sensorimotor recovery in stroke trials: consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable. Int J Stroke. 2017;12(5):451–61.CrossRefPubMed
63.
go back to reference Wolf SL, Kwakkel G, Bayley M, et al. Best practice for arm recovery post stroke: an international application. Physiotherapy. 2016;102(1):1–4.CrossRefPubMed Wolf SL, Kwakkel G, Bayley M, et al. Best practice for arm recovery post stroke: an international application. Physiotherapy. 2016;102(1):1–4.CrossRefPubMed
64.
go back to reference Port IG van de, Kwakkel G, Wijk I van, Lindeman E. Susceptibility to deterioration of mobility long-term after stroke: a prospective cohort study. Stroke. 2006;37(1):167–71.CrossRefPubMed Port IG van de, Kwakkel G, Wijk I van, Lindeman E. Susceptibility to deterioration of mobility long-term after stroke: a prospective cohort study. Stroke. 2006;37(1):167–71.CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
20 jaar Neuropraxis: ‘Een hartinfarct in de hersenen’
Auteur
Gert Kwakkel
Publicatiedatum
27-10-2017
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Neuropraxis / Uitgave 6/2017
Print ISSN: 1387-5817
Elektronisch ISSN: 1876-5785
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12474-017-0169-0

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2017

Neuropraxis 6/2017 Naar de uitgave